Cases reported "Syndrome"

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1/289. Familial cerebellar hypoplasia and pancytopenia without chromosomal breakages.

    Two siblings manifested a neuro-haematologic syndrome characterised by low birth weight, failure to thrive, chronic persistent tongue ulceration, severe truncal ataxia and pancytopenia without either telangiectasia or chromosomal instability. One sibling died from sepsis and the cerebellum demonstrated reduced cellularity of the molecular and granular layers with relative preservation of purkinje cells and minimal gliosis. A surviving sibling has shown haematologic progression to a myelodysplastic disorder. There was no evidence of any chromosomal instability following exposure of fibroblasts and lymphocytes to irradiation. monosomy-7 was not present in the surviving sibling. We suspect that these two patients represent another example of the rare Hoyeraal-Hreidarsson syndrome and we are currently engaged in very close monitoring of the surviving sibling for evidence of any karyotypic abnormality.
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ranking = 1
keywords = ataxia
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2/289. Ataxia, ocular telangiectasia, chromosome instability, and Langerhans cell histiocytosis in a patient with an unknown breakage syndrome.

    An 8 year old boy who had Langerhans cell histiocytosis when he was 15 months old showed psychomotor regression from the age of 2 years. microcephaly, severe growth deficiency, and ocular telangiectasia were also evident. Magnetic nuclear resonance imaging showed cerebellar atrophy. Alphafetoprotein was increased. Chromosome instability after x irradiation and rearrangements involving chromosome 7 were found. Molecular study failed to show mutations involving the ataxia-telangiectasia gene. This patient has a clinical picture which is difficult to relate to a known breakage syndrome. Also, the relationship between the clinical phenotype and histiocytosis is unclear.
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ranking = 1
keywords = ataxia
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3/289. Hypotonia, congenital nystagmus, ataxia, and abnormal auditory brainstem responses: a report on the first white patient.

    A white Italian boy, aged 5 years and 8 months, is reported with failure to thrive, hypotonia, truncal ataxia, psychomotor retardation, and congenital horizontal pendular nystagmus with only waves I and II on auditory brainstem responses. Our patient's clinical picture resembles that previously reported in 10 male Oriental patients. He did not manifest spastic diplegia by the age of 2 years, as did the subjects reported in the literature, but knee-jerk hyperreflexia was evident at the most recent clinical reevaluation. Serial brain MRI studies revealed a cystic brain lesion and peritrigonal hyperintensities with no brainstem abnormalities. To date, no other child with a similar syndrome has been described either in europe or in America. The clinical features of this condition are consistent and characteristic. A definitive diagnosis is achieved by demonstrating the absence of all waves following wave I or wave II on auditory brainstem responses as early as 3 months of age. Due to the predominance of males, the occurrence in siblings, the early age at onset, the non-progressive course, and the characteristic auditory brainstem response findings, the syndrome may have a genetic origin and be attributable to a dysgenetic brainstem lesion.
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ranking = 5
keywords = ataxia
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4/289. kearns-sayre syndrome with features of Pearson's marrow-pancreas syndrome and a novel 2905-base pair mitochondrial dna deletion.

    kearns-sayre syndrome (KSS) and Pearson's marrow-pancreas syndrome (PMPS) are rare disorders caused by the same molecular defect, one of several deletion mutations in mitochondrial dna (mtDNA). KSS is an encephalomyopathy with ophthalmoplegia, retinal degeneration, ataxia, and endocrine abnormalities. PMPS is a disorder of childhood characterized by refractory anemia, vacuolization of bone marrow cells, and exocrine pancreas dysfunction. Children with PMPS that have a mild phenotype, or are supported through bone marrow failure, often develop the encephalomyopathic features of KSS. The subject of numerous reports in the neuromuscular, genetic, and pediatric literature in recent years, very few cases of either disorder have ever been studied at autopsy. We report the results of our studies of a patient with clinically documented KSS who presented with renal dysfunction and was found to have a novel mtDNA deletion and degenerative changes in the central nervous system, retina, skeletal muscle, and pancreas.
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ranking = 1
keywords = ataxia
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5/289. Increased density of oligodendrocytes in childhood ataxia with diffuse central hypomyelination (CACH) syndrome: neuropathological and biochemical study of two cases.

    We report neuropathological, biochemical and molecular studies on two patients with childhood ataxia with diffuse central nervous system hypomyelination (CACH) syndrome, a leukodystrophy recently defined according to clinical and radiological criteria. Both had severe cavitating orthochromatic leukodystrophy without atrophy, predominating in hemispheric white matter, whereas U-fibers, internal capsule, corpus callosum, anterior commissure and cerebellar white matter were relatively spared. The severity of white matter lesions contrasted with the rarity of myelin breakdown products and astroglial and microglial reactions. In the white matter, there was an increase in a homogeneous cell population with the morphological features of oligodendrocytes, in many instances presenting an abundant cytoplasm like myelination glia. These cells were negative for glial fibrillary acidic protein and antibodies PGM1 and MIB1. Some were positive for myelin basic protein, proteolipid protein (PLP), and myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein, but the majority were positive for human 2'-3' cyclic nucleotide 3' phosphodiesterase and all were positive for carbonic anhydrase ii, confirming that they are oligodendrocytes. Myelin protein and lipid content were reduced. The PLP gene, analyzed in one case, was not mutated or duplicated. The increased number of oligodendrocytes without mitotic activity suggests an intrinsic oligodendroglial defect or an abnormal interaction with axons or other glial cells. This neuropathological study supports the notion that CACH syndrome constitutes a specific entity.
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ranking = 5
keywords = ataxia
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6/289. Juvenile neuroaxonal dystrophy: clinical, electrophysiological, and neuropathological features.

    We describe 2 brothers with progressive myoclonus epilepsy that began in the second decade and was associated with cerebellar ataxia and intellectual deterioration. Electroencephalographic and cerebral evoked potential studies showed findings associated with myoclonus epilepsy. Neuropathological examination of 1 of the brothers, who died at age 23 years, revealed widespread changes of neuroaxonal dystrophy without pigment deposition in the basal ganglia. We propose the term juvenile neuroaxonal dystrophy (JNAD) to distinguish this condition on clinical grounds from infantile neuroaxonal dystrophy on the one hand, and on clinical and pathological grounds from Hallervorden-Spatz disease on the other hand. JNAD, while exceedinly rare, must be considered in the differential diagnosis of the progressive myoclonus epilepsies.
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ranking = 2.2811299696116
keywords = cerebellar ataxia, ataxia
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7/289. Cone and rod dysfunction in the NARP syndrome.

    AIMS: Description of the ophthalmic manifestations of the NARP (neuropathy, ataxia, retinitis pigmentosa) syndrome that is associated with a point mutation in position 8993 of the mitochondrial dna (mtDNA). methods: A mother and her two children, all carrying the 8993 mtDNA mutation, were examined. Two had manifestations of the NARP syndrome. A complete ocular and systemic examination was performed on all three patients. RESULTS: The clinical examination, electroretinogram, and visual fields revealed a typical cone-rod dystrophy in the son, and a typical cone dystrophy in the daughter. The mother had no ocular manifestations of the disease. CONCLUSIONS: NARP is a recently described, maternally inherited mitochondrial syndrome in which a retinal dystrophy, among other abnormalities, is related to a mutation of the mtDNA at nucleotide 8993. This study demonstrates the great variability of the ocular manifestations in the NARP syndrome. It also indicates that the retinal dystrophy in at least some NARP patients affects primarily the cones.
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ranking = 1
keywords = ataxia
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8/289. Palatal myoclonus in postinfectious opsoclonus myoclonus syndrome : a case report.

    An adult male presenting with acute onset opsoclonus, myoclonus and cerebellar ataxia is being reported. Patient had myoclonus involving limbs and palate. There are only a few reported cases associated with palatal myoclonus. Patient showed gradual spontaneous recovery. Possibility of underlying malignancy was excluded by detailed investigations.
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ranking = 2.2811299696116
keywords = cerebellar ataxia, ataxia
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9/289. A case of paroxysmal tonic upgaze of childhood with ataxia.

    Paroxysmal tonic upgaze of childhood is a rare, distinctive, childhood syndrome that may be associated with ataxia and sometimes strabismus or amblyopia. Neurological examination as well as metabolic studies, electroencephalogram and neuroradiological investigations are normal in these patients. Although it has been considered as an age-related, dopa-sensitive dystonia, the exact pathogenetic mechanism is still unknown. Aggravation of attacks by fatigue, intercurrent infection or vaccination, and possible corticomesencephalic dysmaturation may underlie this abnormality. We report on a sporadic case of paroxysmal tonic upgaze with ataxia in which there was prompt aggravation of symptoms with sleep without response to levodopa treatment. This case suggests a different underlying pathogenetic mechanism from dopaminergic pathways for this syndrome.
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ranking = 6
keywords = ataxia
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10/289. history of Joubert syndrome and a 30-year follow-up of the original proband.

    The 1960s were a period of great flowering in the recognition of neurologic disorders in children. The so-called ataxic cerebral palsies were an especially fertile field waiting for clarification. Congenital ataxia coupled with hyperpnea-apnea, abnormal eye movements, and retardation was identified as an autosomal-recessive syndrome eponimically associated with the senior author, Marie Joubert. The disorder, though rare, is increasingly recognized and a lay society dedicated to family support and research has been formed. In preparation for a recent symposium the original proband was re-examined 30 years later and the manifestations in adults clarified. Severe dysarthria was the most striking feature in this man, the hyperpnea-apnea had diminished, and the abnormal eye movements were less striking. Ataxia was still present but not severe. Poor judgment and borderline intelligence rounded out the clinical picture. Modern imaging has clarified, in part, the anatomic basis of this syndrome.
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ranking = 1
keywords = ataxia
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