Cases reported "Syndrome"

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11/289. Diffuse pachygyria with cerebellar hypoplasia: a milder form of microlissencephaly or a new genetic syndrome?

    We report on 2 families with diffuse pachygyria and cerebellar hypoplasia, who presented hypotonia, ataxia, seizures, and developmental delay since infancy. Computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) revealed decreased gyral formation in the cerebral cortex and marked hypoplasia in the cerebellum. Cerebellar hypoplasia is often associated with type 2 lissencephaly; however, our cases showed no polymicrogyria, and their clinical findings were quite mild compared with those of microlissencephaly. Their characteristic phenotype suggested a new genetic syndrome, which was possibly inherited as an autosomal recessive trait.
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ranking = 1
keywords = ataxia
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12/289. Gordon Holmes spinocerebellar ataxia: a gonadotrophin deficiency syndrome resistant to treatment with pulsatile gonadotrophin-releasing hormone.

    The Gordon Holmes spinocerebellar ataxia syndrome (GHS) is associated with idiopathic hypogonadotrophic hypogonadism (IHH). There are conflicting reports in the literature as to whether the primary neuroendocrine defect is of hypothalamic GnRH secretion, as with most causes of IHH, or of pituitary resistance to GnRH action. Because of the anatomical inaccessibility of the hypophyseal portal circulation, direct measurement of GnRH levels in human subjects is not possible. Previous investigators have attempted to unravel this problem through the use of GnRH stimulation tests and the limitations of this approach may explain the differing results obtained. We used the more physiological approach of treating a male GHS patient for four weeks with GnRH, 7-10 microg/pulse, delivered subcutaneously at 90 minute frequency via a portable minipump. This therapy failed to induce any rise in plasma gonadotrophin and testosterone concentrations. By contrast, eight weeks treatment with exogenous gonadotrophins maintained physiological plasma testosterone concentrations and induced testicular enlargement with induction of spermatogenesis. The data indicate that the primary endocrinopathy in GHS is of pituitary gonadotrophin secretion and not of hypothalamic GnRH. Moreover, the patient did not harbour any mutation of the GnRH receptor gene. Two clinical observations are consistent with progressive involution of gonadotrophic function, rather than a congenital gonadotrophin deficiency. First, the patient's development was arrested at early mid-puberty at the time of original presentation and, second, effective spermatogenesis was induced extremely rapidly during gonadotrophin treatment, suggesting prior exposure of the testes to FSH. Both spinocerebellar ataxia and pituitary dysfunction might thus have been in evolution since late childhood.
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ranking = 13.686779817669
keywords = cerebellar ataxia, ataxia
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13/289. Two cases of prenatal analysis for the pathogenic T to G substitution at nucleotide 8993 in mitochondrial dna.

    We report the outcome of two prenatal analyses for the T to G mutation at nucleotide 8993 in the mitochondrial dna. This mutation is associated with neurogenic muscle weakness, ataxia and retinitis pigmentosa (NARP) and the neurodegenerative condition, Leigh syndrome. One prospective mother was the sister of a severely affected individual, and had previously had an unaffected child and a stillborn child. The second prospective mother had two unaffected children and two affected children. The mutation was not detected in the chorionic villus sample from one fetus nor in the amniocytes from the other fetus. Both pregnancies were continued, and the resulting children were healthy at two years and five years of age. prenatal diagnosis of this mitochondrial dna mutation is an option likely to be acceptable to some families to prevent the birth of a child at high risk for neurological disease.
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ranking = 1
keywords = ataxia
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14/289. Syndrome of progressive ataxia and palatal myoclonus: a case report.

    A 46-year old man presented with progressive cerebellar ataxia for 5 years. physical examination revealed palatal and tongue myoclonus, cerebellar gait, limb ataxia and spasticity of the lower extremities. The imaging studies including CT-scan and MRI of the brain revealed progressive pancerebellar atrophy and bilateral hypertrophic degeneration of inferior olives. The clinical course was slowly progressive. Various medications included anticonvulsants, benzodiazepines and antispasticity failed to abolish the abnormal palatal movement and ataxic syndrome. The syndrome of progressive ataxia and palatal myoclonus is a rare and unique neurodegenerative syndrome. The pathogenesis and treatment are still unknown.
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ranking = 8.2811299696116
keywords = cerebellar ataxia, ataxia
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15/289. Ataxia-pancytopenia syndrome.

    We report on a Mexican girl who developed cerebellar ataxia at age 3 years and pancytopenia at age 13 years. Cerebral computed tomography scan and magnetic resonance imaging showed evidence of severe cerebellar atrophy. Telangiectasias were not present; immunoglobulins and alpha-fetoprotein levels were normal. Cytogenetic studies showed no evidence of spontaneous chromosome aberrations, a normal rate of diepoxybutane (DEB) and mitomycin C (MMC)-induced chromosome aberrations, but an increased response to bleomycin. The phenotype support the diagnosis of ataxia-pancytopenia syndrome, although monosomy of chromosome 7 was not found in bone marrow. The cytogenetic studies suggest that this may be a chromosomal instability disorder.
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ranking = 3.2811299696116
keywords = cerebellar ataxia, ataxia
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16/289. Oral self-mutilation in a patient with rhombencephalosynapsys.

    Rhombencephalosynapsis (RS) is a rare cerebellar malformation. Its essential features are the absence of the incisura cerebelli posterior, fusion of the cerebellar hemispheres, the absence of the velum medullare anterius and nuclei fastigii, and fusion of the dentate nuclei, which are shifted towards the mid-line. Clinically, affected patients present with signs of cerebellar and motor disturbances. The present report describes a new patient affected by RS. The subject first presented at the age of 22 years because of a psychiatric symptomatology which was characterized by obsessive oral self-mutilation associated with an intellectual disability. Objective evaluation documented dysmorphic features, while neurological examination showed only a slight truncal ataxia. The subject's IQ was 74 on the Wechsler Scale (verbal IQ = 79, performance IQ = 74). Psychiatric evaluation with DSM-IV criteria documented an obsessive-compulsive personality disorder associated with emotional instability and oral self-mutilation. The typical picture of rhombencephalosynapsis was evident on magnetic resonance imaging. Both chromosomal analysis and routine biochemical investigations were normal. The relationship between oral self-injurious behaviour and cerebellar malformations is discussed with particular regard to the behavioural aspects of cerebellar congenital pathology in affective disorders and in autism.
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ranking = 1
keywords = ataxia
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17/289. A case of Hoyeraal-Hreidarsson syndrome: delayed myelination and hypoplasia of corpus callosum are other important signs.

    We report the case of a 7-year old girl with Hoyeraal-Hreidarsson syndrome (HHS) and review other cases of HHS. In addition to the previously described important signs of HHS, i.e., prenatal growth retardation, microcephaly, psychomotor retardation, progressive pancytopenia, immunological abnormalities, and cerebellar hypoplasia and ataxia, we consider that delayed myelination of cerebral white matter and hypoplastic corpus callosum should be added to the list of important signs. However, it is not clear whether delayed myelination of white matter in HHS indicates dysmyelination or demyelination. Furthermore, we suggest that immunological abnormalities of both T and B cells are one of the important signs of HHS. We consider these new important signs to be valuable for the diagnosis of HHS.
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ranking = 1
keywords = ataxia
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18/289. Familial cerebellar ataxia and hypogonadism associated with sensorimotor axonal polyneuropathy.

    In this article, we report two siblings who have familial cerebellar ataxia and hypogonadism associated with sensorimotor axonal polyneuropathy documented by light microscopy. This combination has not been reported previously in the literature. cerebellar ataxia and hypogonadism is reviewed according to the clinical and laboratory features of the reported cases in the literature.
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ranking = 12.405649848058
keywords = cerebellar ataxia, ataxia
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19/289. Corticobasal ganglionic degeneration with Balint's syndrome.

    Corticobasal ganglionic degeneration (CBGD) is a neurodegenerative dementia characterized by asymmetric parkinsonism, ideomotor apraxia, myoclonus, dystonia, and the alien hand syndrome. This report describes a patient with CBGD who developed Balint's syndrome with simultanagnosia, oculomotor apraxia, and optic ataxia.
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ranking = 1
keywords = ataxia
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20/289. Japanese family with an autosomal dominant chromosome instability syndrome: a new neurodegenerative disease?

    We report on a Japanese family having an autosomal dominant neurodegenerative disease with chromosomal instability and radiosensitivity. Clinical manifestations of affected members included short stature, osteoporosis, severe dental caries, and various neurological abnormalities, such as mental retardation, depression, dysarthria, hyperreflexia, and ataxic gait. MRI demonstrated a markedly atrophic spinal cord and degeneration of the white matter. Cytogenetic examination showed spontaneous chromosome rearrangements at 14q11.2 and hypersensitivity to radiation and bleomycin. The degree of these cytogenetic abnormalities was significantly higher in the patients than in normal controls but lower than in patients with ataxia telangiectasia or nijmegen breakage syndrome. Moreover, genetic anticipation was observed in this family: the age of disease onset became earlier, MRI abnormalities more extensive, and the chromosome hypersensitivity to radiation increased in successive generations. We speculate that a basic defect in this family is a mutation in the gene that is responsible for dna double-strand breakage repair.
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ranking = 1
keywords = ataxia
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