Cases reported "Syndrome"

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1/701. An extrahepatic bile duct metastasis from a gallbladder cancer mimicking Mirizzi's syndrome.

    We report a case of an extrahepatic bile duct metastasis from a gallbladder cancer that mimicked Mirizzi's syndrome on cholangiography. A 67-yr-old woman was admitted to our hospital with a diagnosis of acute calculous cholecystitis. As obstructive jaundice developed after the admission, percutaneous transhepatic biliary drainage was performed to ameliorate the jaundice and to evaluate the biliary system. Tube cholangiography revealed bile duct obstruction at the hepatic hilus, and extrinsic compression of the lateral aspect of the common hepatic duct, with nonvisualization of the gallbladder. No impacted cystic duct stone was visualized on CT or ultrasonography. laparotomy revealed a gallbladder tumor as well as an extrahepatic bile duct tumor. We diagnosed that the latter was a metastasis from the gallbladder cancer, based on the histopathological features. This case is unique in that the extrahepatic bile duct metastasis obstructed both the common hepatic duct and the cystic duct, giving the appearance of Mirizzi's syndrome on cholangiography. Metastatic bile duct tumors that mimic Mirizzi's syndrome have not been previously reported. The presence of this condition should be suspected in patients with the cholangiographic features of Mirizzi's syndrome, when the CT or ultrasonographic findings fail to demonstrate an impacted cystic duct stone.
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keywords = visual
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2/701. patients with CHARGE association: a model to study saccular function in the human.

    The term CHARGE association refers to a combination of congenital malformations, the mnemonic CHARGE designating the most frequently occurring anomalies in the constellation. "C" indicates coloboma of the retina, "H" heart defects, "A" choanal atresia, "R" retarded growth and/or central nervous system anomalies, "G" genital hypoplasia, and "E" ear anomalies and/or deafness. The inner ear anomaly consists of a specific form of labyrinthine dysplasia that includes Mondini dysplasia of the pars inferior (cochlea and saccule) and complete absence of the pars superior (utricle and semicircular canals). We observed the development of a child with CHARGE association up to the age of 10 years. There was complete absence of nystagmic response to bithermal caloric and rotatory pendular stimuli. A nystagmic reaction was elicited by the off-vertical axis rotation test, indicating stimulation of the saccular macula, the sole remaining vestibular sense organ in this dysplasia. This reaffirms that the saccule is a vestibular organ, even though it is located in the pars inferior. In spite of the severe bilateral vestibular deficit and coloboma of the retina, the child was able to walk at the age of 2 years. The delay in the development of walking was not due to central nervous system anomalies, as suggested by the "R" of the acronym CHARGE, but rather, to the severe sensorineural visual and vestibular deficits.
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3/701. Spatz-Lindenberg disease: a rare cause of vascular dementia.

    BACKGROUND: Isolated cerebral thromboangiitis obliterans (Spatz-Lindenberg disease) is not well recognized as a cause of vascular dementia. CASE DESCRIPTION: A 58-year-old woman presented with dementia and pyramidal signs. neuroimaging showed multiple areas of white matter change. brain biopsy showed intimal thickening of the walls of leptomeningeal and intraparenchymal arteries, almost to complete occlusion, with an intact internal elastic lamina and media and without inflammation or infiltration. The cortex showed only moderate gliosis. CONCLUSIONS: Spatz-Lindenberg disease should be considered in the differential diagnosis of vascular dementia. Additional studies of its pathogenesis are required to determine appropriate treatment.
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ranking = 0.739803578189
keywords = cortex
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4/701. Ocular changes in mucopolysaccharidosis iv A (Morquio A syndrome) and long-term results of perforating keratoplasty.

    BACKGROUND: The mucopolysaccharidoses (MPS) are an inhomogeneous group of disorders of errors in the carbohydrate metabolism with severe ocular involvement (corneal opacification, retinal degeneration, optic atrophy). PATIENT PRESENTATION: We report on a boy aged 12 years, with Morquio A (MPS IV A) syndrome. Ocular findings: progressive pseudoexophthalmus due to shallow orbits, increasing corneal stromal clouding, intermittent dissociated manifest nystagmus of the left eye, nyctalopia. visual acuity OD cc = 0.16, OS cc = 0.05. electrophysiology: changes suggesting a symptomatic tapetoretinal degeneration and optic atrophy. TREATMENT AND COURSE OF disease: OS: perforating keratoplasty. Postoperative improvement of visual acuity to 0.25 for nearly a year, followed by progressive reopacification of the corneal graft. Both eyes: progressive signs of tapetoretinal degeneration and optic atrophy. visual acuity now reduced to OD 0.05, OS 0.1. CONCLUSIONS: Success of a keratoplasty is limited by (1) reopacification of the cornea, (2) visual impairment due to (a) retinal degeneration and (b) optic atrophy. The indication for perforating keratoplasty has to be thought about very carefully in these multimorbid patients. In our patient, beside progressive visual impairment there is a progressive deafness which dominates his social and school life. Attending school is severely complicated by the double handicap. Perforating keratoplasty enabled the boy to attend a school for physically handicapped without a special low-vision care for another year. Progressive visual loss without further treatment options now renders optical and electronic low-vision aids necessary. Although the time of improved visual acuity lasted less than a year, we think patients with a life expectancy of less than 20 years should have every possible improvement of their situation - even if it does not last permanently. We therefore propose perforating keratoplasty in spite of insufficient long-term results.
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ranking = 2.5
keywords = visual
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5/701. argon laser photocoagulation in ocular histoplasmosis syndrome.

    argon laser photocoagulation was performed on 30 patients with ocular histoplasmosis syndrome involving the macula. Selection of patients for photocoagulation was dependent upon locating the sub-retinal neovascularization (SRNV) at least one vein-width removed from the capillary-free zone of the fovea on fluorescein angiography. Of the 30 treated patients, 27 maintained or improved visual acuity an average of 1 1/2 years following photocoagulation.
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keywords = visual
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6/701. A novel mutation of the doublecortin gene in Japanese patients with X-linked lissencephaly and subcortical band heterotopia.

    The doublecortin (DCX) gene was recently found to be involved in patients with X-linked lissencephaly and subcortical band heterotopia or double cortex syndrome. We have studied the coding regions of the DCX gene in 11 Japanese patients with cortical dysplasia and have identified three different mutations (R186C in exon 3, R272X and R303X in exon 5) in four sporadic female cases. R272X, which has been detected in two unrelated cases, is a novel mutation. Although the number of cases studied remains limited, exon 5 may be a common mutational site in Japanese patients in contrast to many previous reports concerning exons 2 and 3.
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ranking = 0.739803578189
keywords = cortex
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7/701. Multiple evanescent white dot syndrome in older patients.

    PURPOSE: To report two patients in their seventh decade who exhibited findings consistent with multiple evanescent white dot syndrome. methods: case reports of two patients referred for evaluation of decreased vision, visual field loss, and retinal white spots. RESULTS: A 60-year-old man and a 67-year-old woman had photopsia, visual field loss, and decreased central visual acuity. Examination disclosed numerous white retinal spots, ranging from 50 to 400 microm, with eventual foveal granularity. Visual field testing showed an enlarged blind spot and peripheral field defects. fluorescein angiography, electroretinography, and electrooculography results were consistent with multiple evanescent white dot syndrome. Eventually, the retinal lesions resolved in both patients and baseline visual acuity was recovered. CONCLUSION: A diagnosis of multiple evanescent white dot syndrome should be considered in patients with retinal findings typical of multiple evanescent white dot syndrome, regardless of age.
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ranking = 2
keywords = visual
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8/701. Cone and rod dysfunction in the NARP syndrome.

    AIMS: Description of the ophthalmic manifestations of the NARP (neuropathy, ataxia, retinitis pigmentosa) syndrome that is associated with a point mutation in position 8993 of the mitochondrial dna (mtDNA). methods: A mother and her two children, all carrying the 8993 mtDNA mutation, were examined. Two had manifestations of the NARP syndrome. A complete ocular and systemic examination was performed on all three patients. RESULTS: The clinical examination, electroretinogram, and visual fields revealed a typical cone-rod dystrophy in the son, and a typical cone dystrophy in the daughter. The mother had no ocular manifestations of the disease. CONCLUSIONS: NARP is a recently described, maternally inherited mitochondrial syndrome in which a retinal dystrophy, among other abnormalities, is related to a mutation of the mtDNA at nucleotide 8993. This study demonstrates the great variability of the ocular manifestations in the NARP syndrome. It also indicates that the retinal dystrophy in at least some NARP patients affects primarily the cones.
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ranking = 0.5
keywords = visual
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9/701. Linear lesions reflecting lyonization in women heterozygous for IFAP syndrome (ichthyosis follicularis with atrichia and photophobia).

    A diagnosis of IFAP (ichthyosis follicularis with atrichia and photophobia) syndrome was established in a 1-year-old boy with congenital hairlessness, generalized ichthyotic skin changes with follicular hyperkeratoses, and photophobia. IFAP syndrome is considered to be an X-linked recessive trait. The phenotype present in female carriers has so far not been delineated. A 2-year-old sister had atrophoderma and ichthyotic skin lesions arranged in a linear pattern and a large noncicatrical bald patch on her scalp. Similarly, the mother had linear lesions of scaling and atrophy as well as circumscribed hairless areas involving the scalp, the axillary region, and the lower legs. sweat testing by means of iodine starch-reaction visualized hypohidrotic linear lesions corresponding to the areas of hyperkeratosis and atrophy. In both mother and daughter the lesions followed the lines of Blaschko, whereas the boy was diffusely affected. family history showed that the boy's maternal uncle who had died at age 1 year was likewise affected with the same disorder. Moreover, the maternal grandmother had reportedly bald patches on her scalp and very dry skin. This is the first report to document linear skin lesions visualizing lyonization in women heterozygous for IFAP syndrome.
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ranking = 1
keywords = visual
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10/701. EEM syndrome: report of a family and results of a ten-year follow-up.

    We report on a Brazilian kindred in which two sibs presented with the complete form of EEM (ectodermal dysplasia, ectrodactyly, and macular dystrophy) syndrome with hypotrichosis, dental anomalies, syndactyly, and retinal changes with prominent pigmentation in the posterior pole of the retina. In this family, we also observed another sib with syndactyly, as well as a first cousin with ectrodactyly. A 10-year follow-up demonstrated gradually decreasing visual acuity and progression of retinal degenerative anomalies.
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ranking = 0.5
keywords = visual
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