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1/490. Splenic syndrome in sickle cell trait: four case presentations and a review of the literature.

    Four cases of splenic infarction/sequestration in sickle cell trait (SCT) patients are presented. All four patients were undergoing moderate exercise at elevations ranging from 5,500 to 12,000 feet. The patients include two African-American males, a Hispanic male, and a white female. All four presented with the acute onset of mid epigastric then left upper-quadrant pain, nausea, vomiting, and respiratory splinting. A review of the literature indicates that splenic infarction with SCT is not uncommon; however, not surprisingly, it is often initially misdiagnosed. This is the first report in the literature of a female with SCT incurring a splenic syndrome with exposure to terrestrial altitude. Although SCT is not a contraindication for moderate- or high-altitude activities, military physicians need to consider the diagnosis of splenic infarction early in any patient regardless of race or sex who presents with left upper-quadrant pain at altitudes above 5,000 feet. Prompt evacuation to sea level may hasten recovery and spare further splenic trauma. Although SCT should be considered a relatively benign entity, the literature also suggests a higher than average risk of sudden death in military recruits with SCT from exertional heat illness and rhabdomyolysis.
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2/490. An inherited disorder of lymphocyte apoptosis: the autoimmune lymphoproliferative syndrome.

    The autoimmune lymphoproliferative syndrome (ALPS) affords novel insights into the mechanisms that regulate lymphocyte homeostasis and underlie the development of autoimmunity. This syndrome arises early in childhood in persons who inherit mutations in genes that mediate apoptosis, or programmed cell death. The timely deletion of lymphocytes is a way to prevent their accumulation and the persistence of cells that can react against the body's own antigens. In ALPS, defective lymphocyte apoptosis permits chronic, nonmalignant adenopathy and splenomegaly; the survival of normally uncommon "double-negative" CD3 CD4- CD8- T cells; and the development of autoimmune disease. Most cases of ALPS involve heterozygous mutations in the lymphocyte surface protein Fas that impair a major apoptotic pathway. Detailed immunologic investigations of the cellular and cytokine profiles in ALPS show a prominent skewing toward a T-helper 2 phenotype; this provides a rational explanation for the humoral autoimmunity typical of patients with ALPS. Prospective evaluations of 26 patients and their families show an ever-expanding spectrum of ALPS and its major complications: hypersplenism, autoimmune hemolytic anemia, thrombocytopenia, and neutropenia. Defective apoptosis may also contribute to a heightened risk for lymphoma.
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3/490. Hereditary nephritis, deafness and abnormal thrombopoiesis. Study of a new kindred.

    A fourth kindred displaying the triad of hereditary nephritis, deafness and thrombocytopenia with giant platelets is described. Renal involvement, a common cause of death amongst afflicted subjects, appears to have a better prognosis in the affected members of this family. Although the electron microscopic appearance of the megakaryocytes in the present case appears similar to that in previously reported cases, we suggest that the "giant" platelets may result from a degenerative process of megakaryocytes leading to nuclear regression and cytoplasmic fragmentation, rather than the usual blebbing process.
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4/490. Vaginal atresia and bardet-biedl syndrome association: a component or a distinct entity?

    bardet-biedl syndrome is an autosomal recessive disorder. It is characterized by cardinal anomalies including retinal dystrophy, digital malformations, mental retardation, obesity, and hypogonadism. Recently, renal anomalies also are mentioned among the cardinal signs. Although association of genital anomalies among affected boys are well known, the association of vaginal atresia and other structural genital anomalies are not mentioned among the less-common manifestations of bardet-biedl syndrome in girls. Two girls with bardet-biedl syndrome presented with hematometrocolpos in the preadolescent period and vaginal atresia was diagnosed. After surgical treatment and extended hospitalization, uncontrolled sepsis resulted in progressive renal failure and death of both patients. Vaginal atresia is often delayed or missed in the early childhood period. In girls with bardet-biedl syndrome, vaginal atresia or other structural genital anomalies should be evaluated more systematically during the initial diagnosis of the syndrome. In infancy, the evaluation of a child with vaginal atresia also should include the differential diagnosis of bardet-biedl syndrome. Vaginal atresia may either form a component of the syndrome, or girls who present with vaginal atresia in addition to other components of bardet-biedl syndrome might form a distinct entity.
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5/490. Jarcho-Levin syndrome: report on a long-term follow-up of an untreated patient.

    Jarcho-Levin syndrome is a genetically transmitted rare entity characterized by multiple vertebral and rib anomalies. The multilevel skeletal involvement causes short stature, neck and thoracic cage deformities, and restrictive lung disease that is usually the cause of early death. The authors describe a 33-year follow-up of a patient with this syndrome who represents, to their best knowledge, the longest survival of a patient with this entity.
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6/490. Secretory villous adenomas that cause depletion syndrome.

    Secretory villous adenomas of the colon have been known to cause a depleting syndrome characterized by dehydration, prerenal azotemia, hyponatremia, hypokalemia, metabolic acidosis, obtundation, and, in severe cases, death. We describe 1 case of classic depleting syndrome and review the literature on possible mechanisms. Both cyclic adenosine monophosphate and prostaglandin E2 have been implicated as possible secretagogue compounds in the pathogenesis of this syndrome unique to the secretory variant form of villous adenomas. indomethacin as a prostaglandin inhibitor has been used with apparent benefit in controlling the volume of rectal effluent in patients with secretory villous adenomas.
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7/490. The spectrum of reactive hemophagocytic syndrome in systemic lupus erythematosus.

    We address the relationship between reactive hemophagocytic syndrome (RHS), systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) activity, and treatment in 4 female patients with SLE. Febrile pancytopenia was related to cytologically proven RHS in all patients. Followup was 45 /-7 months from RHS onset. No causal infection could be identified. Outcome could be classified as: (1) RHS onset during a SLE flare and complete efficacy of high dose steroids; (2) death despite therapy for concomitant severe RHS and active SLE; (3) severe RHS in inactive SLE under immunosuppressants, with remission after steroid tapering and cyclophosphamide withdrawal. Three patients were treated with intravenous IgG. We conclude that (1) when SLE is active, RHS should be considered a specific manifestation and treated with steroids; (2) RHS occurring in otherwise inactive SLE might be related to iatrogenic immunosuppression; (3) intravenous IgG treatment might be indicated in both situations.
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8/490. A case of McLeod syndrome with chronic renal failure.

    A 50-year-old man with the rare McLeod syndrome, associated with glomerular lesion to the end stage of chronic renal failure and death, is reported. McLeod syndrome is an X-linked recessive disorder on the basis of abnormal expression of the Kell blood group antigens and absence of erythrocyte surface Kx antigen. Most often the clinical and pathological findings are retinitis pigmentosa to blindness, progressive chronic neuropathy, cortical atrophy, dilated cardiomyopathy, and glomerular lesion with chronic renal failure. Among the laboratory parameters the most important are very low level of cholesterol and triglycerides, then various numbers of acanthocytes in peripheral blood smears and sometimes in urine (as in our case).
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9/490. XLMR syndrome characterized by multiple respiratory infections, hypertelorism, severe CNS deterioration and early death localizes to distal Xq28.

    We report on a family with severe X-linked mental retardation (XLMR) and progressive, severe central nervous system deterioration. Three of the five affected males died of secondary complications before the age of 10 years and none have survived past the age of 10. These complications included swallowing dysfunction and gastroesophageal reflux with secondary recurrent respiratory infections. In addition, hypotonia and a mild myopathy were also present. All had a characteristic facies, including downslanting palpebral fissures, hypertelorism, and a short nose with a low nasal bridge. The two older boys showed cerebral atrophy by CT. No metabolic abnormalities were identified. Three obligate carriers had an IQ less than 80. The causal gene has been localized distal to DXS8103 in Xq28, a region spanning 5cM. No other XLMR disorder with these manifestations have been localized to this region and this appears to be a new disorder.
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10/490. albinism and agenesis of the corpus callosum with profound developmental delay: Vici syndrome, evidence for autosomal recessive inheritance.

    We report on two sibs and two other unrelated patients with agenesis of corpus callosum, oculocutaneous albinism, repeated infections, and cardiomyopathy. All manifested postnatal growth retardation, microcephaly, and profound developmental delay. Additional central nervous system anomalies present in at least one patient included hypoplasia of the cerebellar vermis, white matter neuronal heterotopia, or bilateral schizencephaly. Repeated viral, bacterial, and fungal infections were consistent with a primary immunodeficiency. However, immunological studies showed variable, nonspecific findings. Cardiomyopathy with progressive heart failure or infection led to death before age 2 years in three of the patients. This syndrome was first described by Vici et al. [1988: Am. J. Med. Genet. 29:1-8]. The four patients reported herein confirm this unique disorder. Affected sibs of both sexes born to unaffected parents provide evidence for autosomal recessive inheritance.
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