Cases reported "Syndrome"

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1/4468. Abnormal deposition of type VII collagen in Kindler syndrome.

    Kindler syndrome is an extremely rare genetic disorder with features of epidermolysis bullosa and poikiloderma congenitale. Approximately 70 cases have been documented in the past 50 years, but only a few investigations of the basement membrane components have been done on these patients. The aim of this study was to examine the components of the basement membrane zone in search of the pathobiological defect(s) responsible for the clinical findings from a female 16-year-old patient diagnosed with Kindler syndrome. This patient also suffered from advanced early-onset periodontal disease. Biopsies were taken from inflamed gingiva and noninflamed oral mucosa as part of periodontal treatment. The basement membrane zone was examined using immunofluorescence microscopy to bullous pemphigoid antigens 1 and 2, collagen types IV and VII, laminins-1 and -5, and integrins alpha3beta1 and alpha6beta4. The biopsies studied revealed blistering with trauma above the level of lamina densa based on distribution of type IV collagen and laminin-1 at the blister floor. In the noninflamed mucosa, discontinuous areas of the basement membrane zone were found. Expression of the basement membrane zone components and the integrins studied appeared otherwise normal with the exception of type VII collagen which was found in abnormal locations deep in the connective tissue stroma. Our results suggest that Kindler syndrome is associated with abnormalities in the construction of the basement membrane, especially in the expression of type VII collagen. These alterations are likely to play a role as etiological factors leading to blister formation and early onset periodontal disease.
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ranking = 1
keywords = congenita, defect
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2/4468. Kindler syndrome: absence of definite ultrastructural feature.

    Kindler syndrome is characterized by congenital blister formation, photosensitivity, poikiloderma, and cutaneous atrophy in later life. There are few reports about the ultrastructural features of this syndrome, but still there is no consensus about the basic disease. Here we report a case of Kindler syndrome with ultrastructural findings.
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ranking = 0.87513400574856
keywords = congenita
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3/4468. Phakomatosis pigmentovascularis: A new case with renal angiomas and some considerations about the classification.

    We report phakomatosis pigmentovascularis detected in a Caucasian child characterized by the presence of a nevus flammeus and nevus anemicus on the face, a telangiectatic linear nevus of the right leg, and a very extensive blue spot covering 60% of the body surface, with ocular melanosis. Multiple angiomatous lesions of the kidney are associated without alterations of the central nervous system (CNS). This association has not been reported before; it could be a further expression of the complex of developmental defects. Our case corresponds exactly to type IIb in the classification of phakomatosis pigmentovascularis proposed by Hasegawa. As this classification seems very extensive, the higher incidence of cases corresponding to the second subtype suggests that we should identify it by the term phakomatosis pigmentovascularis, while the others could be considered as only very uncommon variants.
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ranking = 0.12486599425144
keywords = defect
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4/4468. Variable clinical expression of Holt-Oram syndrome in three generations.

    Holt-Oram syndrome is a distinct autosomal dominant entity presenting with upper limb defects and cardiac abnormality. No correlation between the severity of the heart and the limb defects has been established. Here we report variable clinical expression of Holt-Oram syndrome in three generations. The grandfather presented with typical upper limb defects: phocomelia of arms with three digits on each hand, congenital heart defect and narrow shoulders. His son manifested cardiac conduction disturbance with no congenital heart or skeletal defect. The granddaughter showed ventricular septal defect and moderate radial deviations of both hands with no obvious hypoplasia of the extremities. Clinical data of the presented family suggests lack of penetrance with respect to skeletal and structural cardiac abnormalities in the Holt-Oram syndrome.
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ranking = 2.4994639770058
keywords = congenita, defect
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5/4468. patients with CHARGE association: a model to study saccular function in the human.

    The term CHARGE association refers to a combination of congenital malformations, the mnemonic CHARGE designating the most frequently occurring anomalies in the constellation. "C" indicates coloboma of the retina, "H" heart defects, "A" choanal atresia, "R" retarded growth and/or central nervous system anomalies, "G" genital hypoplasia, and "E" ear anomalies and/or deafness. The inner ear anomaly consists of a specific form of labyrinthine dysplasia that includes Mondini dysplasia of the pars inferior (cochlea and saccule) and complete absence of the pars superior (utricle and semicircular canals). We observed the development of a child with CHARGE association up to the age of 10 years. There was complete absence of nystagmic response to bithermal caloric and rotatory pendular stimuli. A nystagmic reaction was elicited by the off-vertical axis rotation test, indicating stimulation of the saccular macula, the sole remaining vestibular sense organ in this dysplasia. This reaffirms that the saccule is a vestibular organ, even though it is located in the pars inferior. In spite of the severe bilateral vestibular deficit and coloboma of the retina, the child was able to walk at the age of 2 years. The delay in the development of walking was not due to central nervous system anomalies, as suggested by the "R" of the acronym CHARGE, but rather, to the severe sensorineural visual and vestibular deficits.
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ranking = 21.262173830361
keywords = dysplasia, congenita, defect
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6/4468. Epidermal naevus syndrome and hypophosphataemic rickets: description of a patient with central nervous system anomalies and review of the literature.

    The epidermal naevus syndrome (ENS) is a rare dermatological condition consisting of congenital epidermal nevi associated with anomalies in the central nervous system, bones, eyes, hear or genito-urinary system. We report a new case of ENS associated with hypophosphataemic rickets. The girl was born with a mixed-type epidermal naevus and skeletal anomalies. Hypophosphataemic rickets was diagnosed at the age of 2.5 years. At 14 years of age. MRI of the head demonstrated right brain hypotrophy, a left temporal arachnoid cyst and asymmetric lateral ventricles. We reviewed the literature and found 13 reported cases of ENS associated with hypophosphataemic rickets. Conclusion We report a further patient with epidermal naevus syndrome and hypophosphataemic rickets, followed from birth to the age of 15 years, who had structural central nervous system anomalies with normal intellectual functioning. A comprehensive neurological work up is recommended in patients with epidermal naevus syndrome.
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ranking = 0.87513400574856
keywords = congenita
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7/4468. child with velocardiofacial syndrome and del (4)(q34.2): another critical region associated with a velocardiofacial syndrome-like phenotype.

    We report on a child with congenital heart disease (atrial septal defect, ventricular septal defect, pulmonic stenosis), submucosal cleft palate, hypernasal speech, learning difficulties, and right fifth finger anomaly manifestations, consistent with velocardiofacial syndrome (VCFS); however, cytogenetic analysis demonstrated a small terminal deletion of the segment 4q34.2 to 4qter. Fluorescent in situ hybridization did not identify a deletion of the critical region associated with VCFS. In previously reported 4q deletions with a breakpoint distal to 4q34.2, no cardiac defects or cleft of palate were reported. Our patient has a deletion of 4q34.2 to 4qter and has palate and cardiac involvement and minor learning difficulties, which implies that genes involved in heart and palate development lie distal to 4q34.2, and that the critical region for more severe mental retardation on 4q may reside proximal to 4q34.2. These results suggest that a distal 4q deletion can lead to a phenotype similar to VCFS and emphasizes the importance of searching for other karyotype abnormalities when a VCFS-like phenotype is present and a 22q deletion is not identified.
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ranking = 1.2497319885029
keywords = congenita, defect
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8/4468. Two new cases of Cumming syndrome confirming autosomal recessive inheritance.

    We report on two stillborn sisters with generalized hydrops, campomelia, cervical lymphocele, and polycystic dysplasia of kidney, liver, and pancreas. This syndrome conforms to that first described by Cumming et al. [Am. J. Med. Genet. 25:783-790, 1986]. This observation provides additional support for the notion that this syndrome has an autosomal recessive pattern of inheritance.
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ranking = 6.7540579434537
keywords = dysplasia
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9/4468. Schinzel-Giedion syndrome: evidence for a neurodegenerative process.

    We report on a case of Schinzel-Giedion syndrome in which serial magnetic resonance (MR) brain-imaging studies demonstrated a progressive neurodegenerative process. These findings in addition to "coarse" facial appearance and skeletal abnormality suggest that a progressive metabolic defect underlies this syndrome. However, results of detailed investigations for metabolic disorder were all normal.
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ranking = 0.12486599425144
keywords = defect
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10/4468. cytomegalovirus associated neonatal pneumonia and Wilson-Mikity syndrome: a causal relationship?

    lung injury caused by intrauterine inflammation has recently been strongly implicated in the pathogenesis of Wilson-Mikity syndrome (WMS). This article supports this theory by suggesting a causative role of intrauterine cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection for the development of WMS. A male premature infant, born at 33 weeks of gestational age, developed chronic lung disease compatible with WMS and diagnostic evaluation was positive for CMV infection. High-resolution computed tomography scan and lung histology revealed typical features of WMS in association with signs of interstitial pneumonia. CMV was found in urine, breastmilk, bronchoalveolar lavage material and lung tissue from open lung biopsy. Follow-up after treatment with ganciclovir and steroids showed resolving lung disease at the age of 6, 10 and 16 months, with lung function signs of mild obstruction. Assuming that a chance coexistence of cytomegalovirus pneumonia and Wilson-Mikity syndrome is rather unlikely, it is possible that intrauterine cytomegalovirus infection caused a pattern of lung injury consistent with Wilson-Mikity syndrome. Further cases of Wilson-Mikity syndrome should be investigated as to a possible role of congenital infection.
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ranking = 0.87513400574856
keywords = congenita
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