Cases reported "Syndrome"

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11/436. Electroretinograms and visual evoked potentials elicited by spectral stimuli in a patient with enhanced S-cone syndrome.

    PURPOSE: To evaluate the properties of the retina of a Japanese patient with enhanced S-cone syndrome by analyzing electroretinograms (ERGs) and visual evoked potentials (VEPs) elicited by different spectral stimuli. methods: Ganzfeld spectral flashes in the presence of strong white adapting background illumination were used to elicit cone ERGs and VEPs. RESULTS: The cone ERG elicited in the patient by short wavelength stimuli was distinctly different from the normal S-cone ERG. The action spectrum of the cone ERG confirmed its relative hypersensitivity to short wavelengths. The action spectrum of the VEP for the patient showed a similar relative hypersensitivity to short wavelengths. The response of the VEPs to short wavelength stimuli was different in waveform from the VEP response to longer wavelength stimuli observed in a normal subject. CONCLUSIONS: These results indicate that the hypersensitivity to short wavelengths is transmitted to the central nervous system and that there is a short wavelength transducing photopigment in many of the photoreceptors, either abnormal S-cones or photopic rods.
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12/436. Gordon Holmes spinocerebellar ataxia: a gonadotrophin deficiency syndrome resistant to treatment with pulsatile gonadotrophin-releasing hormone.

    The Gordon Holmes spinocerebellar ataxia syndrome (GHS) is associated with idiopathic hypogonadotrophic hypogonadism (IHH). There are conflicting reports in the literature as to whether the primary neuroendocrine defect is of hypothalamic GnRH secretion, as with most causes of IHH, or of pituitary resistance to GnRH action. Because of the anatomical inaccessibility of the hypophyseal portal circulation, direct measurement of GnRH levels in human subjects is not possible. Previous investigators have attempted to unravel this problem through the use of GnRH stimulation tests and the limitations of this approach may explain the differing results obtained. We used the more physiological approach of treating a male GHS patient for four weeks with GnRH, 7-10 microg/pulse, delivered subcutaneously at 90 minute frequency via a portable minipump. This therapy failed to induce any rise in plasma gonadotrophin and testosterone concentrations. By contrast, eight weeks treatment with exogenous gonadotrophins maintained physiological plasma testosterone concentrations and induced testicular enlargement with induction of spermatogenesis. The data indicate that the primary endocrinopathy in GHS is of pituitary gonadotrophin secretion and not of hypothalamic GnRH. Moreover, the patient did not harbour any mutation of the GnRH receptor gene. Two clinical observations are consistent with progressive involution of gonadotrophic function, rather than a congenital gonadotrophin deficiency. First, the patient's development was arrested at early mid-puberty at the time of original presentation and, second, effective spermatogenesis was induced extremely rapidly during gonadotrophin treatment, suggesting prior exposure of the testes to FSH. Both spinocerebellar ataxia and pituitary dysfunction might thus have been in evolution since late childhood.
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keywords = frequency
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13/436. insulin autoimmune syndrome: a rare cause of hypoglycaemia not to be overlooked.

    We report the case of a Caucasian patient with insulin autoimmune syndrome (IAS), defined as the association of hypoglycaemic attacks with insulin autoantibodies in individuals not previously treated with exogenous insulin. This rare syndrome (more than 200 published cases) has been reported mainly in japan. Most affected patients present with other autoimmune disorders, most often Graves' disease. In most cases, insulin autoantibodies appear a few weeks after the beginning of treatment with a drug containing a sulphyldryl group. A significant increase in insulin and c-peptide plasma concentrations and the presence of other antiorgan antibodies are observed. The susceptibility haplotype is present in the Japanese population, which may account for the high frequency of IAS. Spontaneous remission is observed in 80% of cases, with cessation of hypoglycaemic attacks and disappearance of insulin autoantibodies some months after withdrawal of the drug. This rare cause of hypoglycaemia in Caucasian subjects should be considered in aetiologic investigation of spontaneous hypoglycaemia.
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ranking = 0.89580789153674
keywords = high frequency, frequency
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14/436. A connexin 26 mutation causes a syndrome of sensorineural hearing loss and palmoplantar hyperkeratosis (MIM 148350).

    We report a missense mutation in the connexin 26 gene (GJB2) in a family with an autosomal dominant syndrome of hearing loss and hyperkeratosis. The affected family members have high frequency, slowly progressive, bilateral, sensorineural hearing loss and palmoplantar hyperkeratosis. The mutation causes an amino acid substitution (G59A), which may disrupt a reverse turn in the first extracellular loop of connexin 26. Connexin 26 mutations have been reported in syndromes of deafness and palmoplantar keratoderma. These data provide additional evidence for the role of connexin 26 in syndromes of this type.
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ranking = 0.89580789153674
keywords = high frequency, frequency
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15/436. Intracranial clot dissolution is associated with embolic signals on transcranial Doppler.

    reperfusion of intracranial arteries can be detected by transcranial Doppler (TCD). The authors report microembolic signals (MES) on TCD as a sign of clot dissolution and recanalization. Microembolic signals were detected during routine diagnostic TCD examination performed in the emergency room in patients eligible for thrombolytic therapy. Microembolic signals were found at the site of M1 middle cerebral artery (MCA) high-grade stenosis or near-occlusion. Transcranial Doppler was performed before, during, and after thrombolytic therapy. Of 16 consecutive patients, 3 (19%) had MES on TCD. All three patients had a severe MCA syndrome at 2 hours after stroke onset scored using the National Institutes of health stroke Scale (NIHSS). In patient #1 (NIHSS 12), clusters of MES were detected distal to a high-grade M1 MCA stenosis preceding spontaneous clinical recovery by 2 minutes. Because of subsequent fluctuating clinical deficit, intraarterial thrombolysis was given with complete recovery. In patient #2 (NIHSS 20), TCD detected an M1 MCA near-occlusion. At 1.5 hours after intravenous tissue plasminogen activator, TCD showed minimal MCA flow signals followed by MES, increased velocities, and normal flow signals in just 2 minutes. She gradually recovered up to NIHSS 8 in 5 days. In patient #3 with NIHSS 22 and an M1 MCA near-occlusion, TCD detected MES 15 minutes after TPA bolus followed by MCA flow velocity improvement from 15 cm/sec to 30 cm/sec. The patient recovered completely by the end of tissue plasminogen activator infusion. The authors conclude that embolic signals detected by TCD at the site of arterial obstruction can indicate clot dissolution. Intracranial recanalization on TCD can be associated with MES and changes in flow waveform, pulsatility, and velocity if insonation is performed at the site of arterial obstruction.
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16/436. Intermediate syndrome after malathion ingestion despite continuous infusion of pralidoxime.

    CASE REPORT: A 33-year-old female ingested an unknown quantity of malathion in a suicide attempt. Cholinergic signs consistent with severe organ, phosphate intoxication developed and were treated within 6 hours of ingestion. Intravenous atropine and a continuous infusion of pralidoxime (400 mg/h) were administered. Prolonged depression of plasma and red blood cell cholinesterases were documented. Despite an initial clinical improvement and the presence of plasma pralidoxime concentrations exceeding 4 microg/mL, the patient developed profound motor paralysis consistent with the diagnosis of Intermediate Syndrome. In addition to the dose and frequency of pralidoxime administration, other factors including persistence of organophosphate in the body, the chemical structure of the ingested organophosphate, and the time elapsed between ingestion and treatment may limit the effectiveness of pralidoxime as an antidote in organophosphate ingestions. This case study suggests that these factors should be taken into account in assessing the risk of Intermediate Syndrome after intentional organophosphate ingestions.
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ranking = 0.053299585345792
keywords = frequency
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17/436. Right ovarian vein syndrome. A case with pre- and peroperative electromyographic registration of ureteral activity.

    Electrophysiological studies of ureteral function in a patient with right ovarian vein syndrome demonstrated intermittent antiperistalsis as reflected from pre-operative endoureteral activity recordings. The antiperistalsis was related to the patient intermittent right flank pain. Per-operative EMG and pressure measurements revealed that the antiperistalsis apparently arose from the area of obstruction and caused pressure waves of higher amplitude than those seen during normal anterograde peristaltic activity. After section of the vein, exclusively anterograde peristalsis was observed, and at 3 month follow-up, the patient was free of right side colics.
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ranking = 0.125
keywords = wave
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18/436. brugada syndrome characterized by the appearance of J waves.

    We describe a patient with brugada syndrome. The ST-segment elevation in precordial leads was revealed during admission, but the appearance of J waves was characteristic before ventricular fibrillation (VF), rather than ST-segment elevation. J waves have been reported to be associated with the presence of an Ito-mediated prominent action potential notch in the epicardium. It is considered that one of the mechanisms of this VF is due to heterogeneous distribution of the refractory period according to changes in K channels including Ito.
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19/436. ST segment and T wave alternans in a patient with brugada syndrome.

    We describe a patient with brugada syndrome in whom J point and ST-segment elevation in leads V1 and V2 were augmented by atrial pacing and intravenous administration of propranolol or cibenzoline. Significant T wave alternans with a 2:1 appearance of terminal negative T wave was observed in the absence and presence of atrial pacing after the administration of cibenzoline. The cellular mechanism responsible for T wave alternans, beat-to-beat appearance of terminal negative T wave and augmented J point and ST-segment elevation is discussed.
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keywords = wave
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20/436. thrombocytopenia with absent radii: frequency of marrow megakaryocyte progenitors, proliferative characteristics, and megakaryocyte growth and development factor responsiveness.

    Congenital thrombocytopenia with absent radii (TAR syndrome) is characterized by defective thrombopoiesis and bleeding in early infancy. To determine the frequency and responsiveness to cytokines of megakaryocyte progenitors (CFU-Meg) in TAR syndrome, the authors studied marrow samples from 3 patients and 6 normal controls, using optimally standardized megakaryocyte growth media incorporating interleukin-3, interleukin-6, stem cell factor, and granulocyte-monocyte colony-stimulating factor, with and without pegylated recombinant human megakaryocyte growth and development factor (PEG-rHuMGDF). CFU-Meg was identified with a specific staining system utilizing monoclonal antibodies to glycoprotein IIb/IIIa. Growth of small CFU-Meg colonies (3-20 cells/colony) was observed in all patients in cultures without PEG-rHuMGDF, with a mean frequency of 8 (range 5-12) per 2.25 x 10(5) mononuclear cells plated (control mean 23; range 2-70). Identical cultures of marrow cells from patients and controls with added PEG-rHuMGDF produced more colonies per dish (mean 17, range 8-23; control mean 30, range 6-62). Except for 1 case, however, patients' colonies in response to PEG-rHuMGDF remained smaller than those of controls. Two patients tested had higher plasma thrombopoietin levels than 6 normal subjects. The findings demonstrate proliferative and PEG-rHuMGDF-responsive megakaryocytic progenitors in TAR syndrome. The modest reduction in frequency of megakaryocyte progenitors and the suboptimal size of colonies in response to PEG-rHuMGDF are compatible with the reported defective signal transduction in the c-mpl pathway in TAR syndrome.
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ranking = 0.37309709742054
keywords = frequency
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