Cases reported "Syndrome"

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1/181. Atypical herpes simplex encephalitis presenting as operculum syndrome.

    This case report demonstrates the course of herpes simplex virus cerebritis in a patient aged 7 years 2 months who presented with non-specific symptoms followed by an epileptic attack. Subcortical, bilateral opercular and bilateral thalamic lesions were detected, but the temporal and inferior frontal lobes were spared. The patient developed anarthria, impairment of mastication and swallowing consistent with operculum syndrome. Diagnosis was made by magnetic resonance imaging and elevation of oligoclonal antibodies specific to herpes simplex virus in cerebrospinal fluid after an unexpectedly negative polymerase chain reaction test.
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ranking = 1
keywords = encephalitis, herpes
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2/181. prenatal diagnosis of congenital varicella syndrome and detection of varicella-zoster virus in the fetus: a case report.

    Varicella syndrome (VS) specific malformations were sonographically seen at 22 weeks and 3 days of gestation. Fetal infection was demonstrated by detection of varicella-zoster virus (VZV) dna in fetal blood and amniotic fluid by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Following therapeutic abortion, fetal infection was confirmed by detection of VZV dna in several fetal tissues and placenta, and by histopathological findings like miliary calcified necroses in fetal organs.
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ranking = 0.80144264446757
keywords = varicella, zoster
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3/181. plasma exchange in Rasmussen's encephalitis.

    The authors observed a 4-year-old girl who has Rasmussen's encephalitis. She started with frequent localized and generalized seizures. Standard antiepileptic treatment was almost ineffective. The frequency of the generalized seizures decreased, but the myoclonic jerks of the left part of the body persisted. An EEG showed partial status epilepticus. The results of the CT scan were normal. antibodies to viruses were absent from the blood and cerebrospinal fluid. An MR scan showed a T2-weighted hypersignal zone in the right frontal region. Intravenous bolus injections of corticosteroids and drips of immunoglobulins were inefficient, and we started plasma exchanges which have continued for 9 months. The clinical state stabilized, and the images on the MR scan improved, but the results of the EEG did not improve. The authors discuss the effect of the plasma exchange, the use of which is questionable in this disease.
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ranking = 1.1697516350737
keywords = encephalitis
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4/181. Enteroviral meningoencephalitis as a complication of X-linked hyper IgM syndrome.

    We describe 5 children from 2 families with mutations in the cd40 ligand (CD40L) gene leading to absent expression of CD40L on activated CD4 cells. All subjects presented with interstitial pneumonia with low serum IgG and normal serum IgM. One child had normal and one child had elevated serum IgA. Four had confirmed pneumocystis carinii pneumonia. In spite of intravenous immunoglobulin treatment yielding therapeutic serum immunoglobulin levels, 3 children had enteroviral encephalitis. When assessed by flow cytometry, the 3 surviving affected male children had absent CD40L expression on activated CD4( ) T cells. The affected children from both families were shown to have the same single nucleotide insertion (codon 131) resulting in frameshift and early termination within exon 4 (extracellular domain). This observation demonstrates that persistent enteroviral infection is not only observed in X-linked agammaglobulinemia but may also occur in patients with X-linked hyper IgM syndrome.
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ranking = 1.2154912213524
keywords = encephalitis, meningoencephalitis
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5/181. Fatal group A Streptococcal toxic shock-like syndrome in a child with varicella: report of the first well documented case with detection of the genetic sequences that code for exotoxins spe A and B, in Sao Paulo, brazil.

    A previously healthy seven-year-old boy was admitted to the intensive care unit because of toxaemia associated with varicella. He rapidly developed shock and multisystem organ failure associated with the appearance of a deep-seated soft tissue infection and, despite aggressive treatment, died on hospital day 4. An M-non-typable, spe A and spe B positive Group A streptococcus was cultured from a deep soft tissue aspirate. The criteria for defining Streptococcal toxic shock-like syndrome were fulfilled. The authors discuss the clinical and pathophysiological aspects of this disease as well as some unusual clinical findings related to this case.
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ranking = 0.35145550873139
keywords = varicella
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6/181. Hypersensitivity syndrome due to 2 anticonvulsant drugs.

    Drug-induced hypersensitivity syndrome is a multiorgan-system reaction characterized by fever, pleomorphic eruption, lymphadenopathy, eosinophilia, lymphocytosis and hepatitis. We report a drug hypersensitivity syndrome in a 6-year-old Tunisian child treated for epileptic absences with sodium valproate and ethosuximide. Imputability of these 2 drugs is probable because of the chronological and clinical features. Positive rechallenge with ethosuximide confirmed the toxicity of this drug. sodium valproate was also responsible because patch testing was positive and followed by a generalized eruption. Human herpesvirus 6 (HHV6) antibody titers increased significantly within 15 days. There was a favourable outcome after discontinuation of the drugs and corticosteroid therapy. Our case is interesting because this drug hypersensitivity syndrome occurred with non-aromatic anticonvulsant drugs. It is the 1st case with ethosuximide and the 2nd with sodium valproate. We also observed a reactivation of HHV6 infection that may contribute to the development of this hypersensitivity syndrome.
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ranking = 0.040494666075099
keywords = herpesvirus, herpes
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7/181. Papular-purpuric "gloves and socks" syndrome: polymerase chain reaction demonstration of parvovirus B19 dna in cutaneous lesions and sera.

    We report a typical case of papular-purpuric "gloves and socks" syndrome (PPGSS) in which primary infection by parvovirus B19 was demonstrated by seroconversion to this virus; parvovirus B19 dna was also identified by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) methods in the sera of the patient and in the cutaneous biopsy specimen, both taken 4 days after the onset of clinical manifestations. To our knowledge, this is the fourth published case in which parvovirus B19 dna has been recovered from the skin by PCR. Serologic studies and PCR investigations in cutaneous biopsy for other viruses including herpes simplex virus types 1 and 2, varicella zoster virus, Epstein-Barr virus, cytomegalovirus, and human herpesvirus 6, 7, and 8 were negative. Clinically, our case presented some additional features, which have not been previously described in cases of PPGSS, namely dysuria with vulvar edema and erythema, and unilateral petechial rash on the breast. The histopathologic findings of our case were nonspecific and consisted of an interface dermatitis with slight vacuolar degeneration at the dermoepidermal junction and a superficial perivascular inflammatory infiltrate mostly composed of lymphocytes, with numerous extravasated erythrocytes. We review the cases of PPGSS published in the literature with respect to the different viruses that have been proposed as etiologic agents and conclude that acute infection by parvovirus B19 is the only one that has been adequately proved.
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ranking = 0.45009143863378
keywords = human herpesvirus, varicella, varicella zoster, zoster, herpesvirus, herpes
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8/181. Jugular foramen syndrome caused by varicella zoster virus infection in a patient with ipsilateral hypoplasia of the jugular foramen.

    We report a patient with acute cranial polyneuropathy with unilateral involvement of the ninth, tenth, and eleventh cranial nerves. Although this patient lacked a typical cutaneous herpetic manifestation, elevated levels of IgM and IgG antibodies to varicella zoster virus (VZV) in both the serum and cerebrospinal fluid confirmed the clinical diagnosis of VZV infection and zoster sine herpete. Coexisting hypoplasia of the ipsilateral jugular foramen was detected using three-dimensional, surface-rendering displays reconstructed from the cranial helical CT scan. The patient recovered almost completely following treatment with an anti-inflammatory corticosteroid. Anatomical narrowing of the jugular foramen in this patient may have contributed to entrapment of the affected nerves at their passage through the foramen.
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ranking = 0.74493418383586
keywords = varicella, varicella zoster, zoster
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9/181. Foix-Chavany-Marie (anterior operculum) syndrome in childhood: a reappraisal of Worster-Drought syndrome.

    Foix-Chavany-Marie syndrome (FCMS) is a distinct clinical picture of suprabulbar (pseudobulbar) palsy due to bilateral anterior opercular lesions. Symptoms include anarthria/severe dysarthria and loss of voluntary muscular functions of the face and tongue, and problems with mastication and swallowing with preservation of reflex and autonomic functions. FCMS may be congenital or acquired as well as persistent or intermittent. The aetiology is heterogeneous; vascular events in adulthood, nearly exclusively affecting adults who experience multiple subsequent strokes; CNS infections; bilateral dysgenesis of the perisylvian region; and epileptic disorders. Of the six cases reported here, three children had FCMS as the result of meningoencephalitis, two children had FCMS due to a congenital bilateral perisylvian syndrome, and one child had intermittent FCMS due to an atypical benign partial epilepsy with partial status epilepticus. The congenital dysgenetic type of FCMS and its functional epileptogenic variant share clinical and EEG features suggesting a common pathogenesis. Consequently, an increased vulnerability of the perisylvian region to adverse events in utero is discussed. In honour of Worster-Drought, who described the clinical entity in children 40 years ago, the term Worster-Drought syndrome is proposed for this unique disorder in children.
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ranking = 0.24538522358441
keywords = encephalitis, meningoencephalitis
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10/181. Congenital varicella syndrome in the absence of cutaneous lesions.

    A case of congenital varicella syndrome characterized by intrauterine growth retardation, ocular and neurologic abnormalities, but no cutaneous lesions is reported. This case highlights the risk of embryopathy from varicella infection during pregnancy in non-immune women.
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ranking = 0.42174661047766
keywords = varicella
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