Cases reported "Syndrome"

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21/1455. Histopathology and molecular basis of iridogoniodysgenesis syndrome.

    Iridogoniodysgenesis is an autosomal dominant disorder in which there are abnormalities in the development of the iris stroma and trabecular meshwork tissues commonly resulting in glaucoma. The unoperated eye from an affected member of a family with iridogoniodysgenesis syndrome (IGDS) was removed shortly after death. Histopathological studies showed an incomplete, normally positioned line of Schwalbe and iris stromal hypoplasia. The molecular basis underlying the disorder is a missense mutation in the RIEG gene at 4q25, mutations of which have been previously shown to cause Axenfeld-Rieger syndrome (ARS). Coupled with another report of a missense mutation of the RIEG gene in a family with IGDS, we suggest that these mutations may interfere less with gene function and thereby may be responsible for a milder phenotype than occurs in the more characteristic ARS.
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22/1455. Autosomal dominant inheritance of Barber-Say syndrome.

    We report on a mother-to-son transmission of the Barber-Say syndrome, a finding that strongly supports dominant inheritance of this rare disorder. The characteristic facial changes, small ears, hirsutism, and redundant skin of our patients are consistent with the findings of five reported cases. The mother also had cleft palate and mild conductive hearing loss. Her son had a shawl scrotum, primary hypospadias, and mild hearing loss by report. The inheritance of this rare disorder has not been established. The parent-to-child transmission in this family suggests X-linked or autosomal dominant inheritance. The parents of the patient reported by Santana et al. [1993: Am. J. Med. Genet. 47:20-23] were consanguineous, suggesting autosomal recessive inheritance in other cases.
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keywords = dominant
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23/1455. Molecular genetic diagnosis of the familial myxoma syndrome (carney complex).

    We describe an individual in whom molecular genetic testing provided a diagnosis of the carney complex, an autosomal dominant syndrome comprising cutaneous and cardiac myxomas, spotty pigmentation of the skin, and endocrinopathy. Recently, we localized the carney complex disease gene to chromosome region 17q2. Our patient was a member of a family segregating the carney complex, but was not, himself, initially thought to be affected. Haplotype analysis based on genotyping studies with 17q2 microsatellites predicted that this individual was, in fact, affected by carney complex and was at risk for development of myxomas. Further clinical evaluation and re-review of prior pathologic studies, then, confirmed the dna-based diagnosis. This report highlights the difficulty in establishing a diagnosis of carney complex based on clinical and pathologic findings alone, and we suggest that molecular genetic analyses provide an important diagnostic method for this familial myxoma syndrome.
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24/1455. Acrochordons are not a component of the birt-hogg-dube syndrome: does this syndrome exist? case reports and review of the literature.

    Multiple fibrofolliculomas, trichodiscomas, and acrochordons compose the triad of cutaneous lesions characterizing the birt-hogg-dube syndrome, inherited in an autosomal dominant fashion. We report a case of a family who had the triad of tumors of the birt-hogg-dube syndrome. Two members were observed clinically and histologically. Biopsies of the facial papules disclosed features of the fibrofolliculoma/trichodiscoma spectrum. Lesions that were clinically acrochordon-like proved to correspond to the same histopathologic spectrum. The characterization of the nature of the acrochordon-like lesions in our patients and the review of the literature allow us to question if acrochordons (skin tags) should be maintained as a component of this association. In light of our conclusion that fibrofolliculoma, trichodiscoma, and the acrochordon-like lesions are histologic variations of a single lesion, we further question whether the term "syndrome" is valid.
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keywords = dominant
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25/1455. Say syndrome: report of a familial case.

    We describe a new case of Say syndrome. This syndrome is an autosomal dominant condition characterized by cleft palate, short stature of prenatal onset, large protruding ears and microcephaly, delayed bone age, and renal anomalies. The first report was in 1975 by Say et al. in three generations of a family. Three additional reports of isolated cases were published. Our propositus is a 12-month-old boy with the cardinal signs of the syndrome whose mother has only microcephaly. To our knowledge this is the second familial report with evidence of highly variable expressivity. The occurrence of renal anomalies in a son of a normal sister of his mother suggests incomplete penetrance.
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26/1455. Dominant inheritance of cleft palate with minor abnormalities of hands and feet: a new syndrome?

    We report a family in which four members of three generations are affected by median cleft palate. The proband and her mother have additional features including bilateral single transverse palmar creases, broad great toes and hypoplastic fifth toenails. Dominant isolated cleft palate has rarely been reported, and there are no previous reports of dominant cleft palate with these associated features. We believe that this represents a previously unreported syndrome, which needs to be considered when assessing recurrence risk for cleft palate.
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27/1455. microcephaly-lymphedema-chorioretinal dysplasia: a unique genetic syndrome with variable expression and possible characteristic facial appearance.

    We report on a follow-up examination of a family with microcephaly and lymphedema. The finding of chorioretinal dysplasia with variable visual deficit in multiple relatives, which was not previously discovered, supports the concept of microcephaly, lymphedema, and chorioretinopathy as being a single autosomal dominant genetic entity with variable expression. We recommend that fundoscopic examination be performed in all patients with microcephaly with or without lymphedema.
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28/1455. Microvesicular steatosis, hemosiderosis and rapid development of liver cirrhosis in a patient with Pearson's syndrome.

    BACKGROUND/AIMS: Pearson's marrow-pancreas syndrome consists of refractory sideroblastic anemia with vacuolization of marrow precursors and exocrine pancreas dysfunction. patients with this disease usually have large deletions of the mitochondrial genome. We report a patient with Pearson's syndrome who had predominantly hepatic manifestations such as microvesicular steatosis, hemosiderosis and rapidly developing cirrhosis. methods: Analysis of the mitochondrial and nuclear genomes, determination of enzyme activities and of the hepatic iron content were performed using standard techniques of molecular biology and biochemistry. RESULTS: The patient had typical ringed sideroblasts in a bone marrow smear and a 7436-bp deletion of the mitochondrial genome in all tissues investigated, compatible with Pearson's syndrome. He died within 3 months after birth due to liver failure. Histopathological analysis of the liver revealed complete cirrhosis with signs of chronic cholestasis, microvesicular steatosis and massive hemosiderosis. In addition, the patient was heterozygous for the C282Y and H63D mutations of the hemochromatosis gene. CONCLUSIONS: Pearson's syndrome should be added to the list of neonatal diseases which can cause microvesicular steatosis, hepatic accumulation of iron and liver cirrhosis.
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keywords = dominant
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29/1455. Delayed diffuse upper motor neuron syndrome after compressive thoracic myelopathy.

    A 54-year-old man developed progressive spastic paraparesis beginning 2 weeks after a back injury caused by a subacute compressive thoracic myelopathy attributable to a post-traumatic arachnoid cyst. Three to 18 months after surgical decompression of the thoracic arachnoid cyst, the patient developed a diffuse predominantly upper motor neuron syndrome characterized by spastic quadriparesis, pseudobulbar paresis, and pseudobulbar affect. Retrograde corticospinal tract degeneration and upper motor neuron death after spinal cord injury is recognized. This case suggests that focal upper motor neuron injury can occasionally precipitate diffuse upper motor neuron dysfunction.
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keywords = dominant
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30/1455. Tooth root resorption associated with a familial bone dysplasia affecting mother and daughter.

    The dental findings are presented of a mother and daughter who suffer from an as yet unclassified bone dysplasia that shows features of both hereditary hyperphosphatasia and familial expansile osteolysis. Both patients have experienced progressive root resorption of permanent teeth, deafness, and high alkaline phosphatase levels. The mother has a more advanced bone dysplasia which has led to progressive skeletal deformity and bone pain. The kindred is consistent with an autosomal dominant pattern, and the mutation(s) is thought to be in chromosome 18q21-22 region. Conventional treatment strategies of root resorption offer only a poor prognosis for the dentition. Therapy using alendronate, a bisphosphonate compound and a potent inhibitor of osteoclastic activity, has reduced alkaline phosphatase levels, bone pain, and may offer an effective strategy to prevent tooth root resorption in this group of diseases.
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