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1/178. Increased sister chromatid exchange in bone marrow and blood cells from Bloom's syndrome.

    Bone-marrow cells from a patient with Bloom's syndrome cultured for 48 h in the presence of BudR exhibited a striking increase in the number of sister chromatid exchanges (SCEs) in comparison to that in the marrow cells of a patient with treated polycythemia vera (PV). Thus, it appears that an increased incidence of SCE in Bloom's syndrome occurs in various differentiated types of cells, not just blood lymphocytes, and constitutes the syndrome's most characteristic cytogenetic feature. In contrast, the incidence of SCE was not increased in marrow cells and lymphocytes of the particular PV patient studied here, whose cells did exhibit increased numbers of chromatid and chromosome gaps and breaks, presumably as result of the patient's earlier treatment. An increased frequency of SCE was demonstrated in Bloom's syndrome lymphocytes using both a technique based on BudR incorporation and one based on labeling with tritated deoxycytidine. This observation constitutes evidence against the increase of SCE being due to an unusual reaction to BudR. By conventional cytogenetic techniques, chromosome instability, including chromatid and chromosome breaks, but no homologous chromatid interchanges were also recognized in Bloom's syndrome bone-marrow cells incubated in vitro (without BudR) for either 1.k or 16 h. This observation points to the existence of chromosome instability in vivo.
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ranking = 1
keywords = instability
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2/178. Familial cerebellar hypoplasia and pancytopenia without chromosomal breakages.

    Two siblings manifested a neuro-haematologic syndrome characterised by low birth weight, failure to thrive, chronic persistent tongue ulceration, severe truncal ataxia and pancytopenia without either telangiectasia or chromosomal instability. One sibling died from sepsis and the cerebellum demonstrated reduced cellularity of the molecular and granular layers with relative preservation of purkinje cells and minimal gliosis. A surviving sibling has shown haematologic progression to a myelodysplastic disorder. There was no evidence of any chromosomal instability following exposure of fibroblasts and lymphocytes to irradiation. monosomy-7 was not present in the surviving sibling. We suspect that these two patients represent another example of the rare Hoyeraal-Hreidarsson syndrome and we are currently engaged in very close monitoring of the surviving sibling for evidence of any karyotypic abnormality.
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ranking = 1
keywords = instability
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3/178. ataxia, ocular telangiectasia, chromosome instability, and Langerhans cell histiocytosis in a patient with an unknown breakage syndrome.

    An 8 year old boy who had Langerhans cell histiocytosis when he was 15 months old showed psychomotor regression from the age of 2 years. microcephaly, severe growth deficiency, and ocular telangiectasia were also evident. Magnetic nuclear resonance imaging showed cerebellar atrophy. Alphafetoprotein was increased. Chromosome instability after x irradiation and rearrangements involving chromosome 7 were found. Molecular study failed to show mutations involving the ataxia-telangiectasia gene. This patient has a clinical picture which is difficult to relate to a known breakage syndrome. Also, the relationship between the clinical phenotype and histiocytosis is unclear.
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ranking = 2.5
keywords = instability
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4/178. A case of multiple sebaceous epithelioma: analysis of microsatellite instability.

    Sebaceous gland tumor is a rare disease that is a sign of muir-torre syndrome, an autosomal, dominantly inherited genodermatosis characterized by the presence of at least one sebaceous gland tumor and a minimum of one internal malignancy. Recent studies have indicated that defective dna mismatch repair occurs in muir-torre syndrome. Cutaneous lesions may occur before diagnosis of the internal cancer. We describe a 64-year-old male patient with multiple sebaceous epitheliomas with no evident internal malignancy. microsatellite instability, determined by examining dinucleotide CA repeats at the microsatellite loci, was observed in DNA from one sebaceous epithelioma but not from the other two sebaceous epitheliomas or from one basal cell epithelioma with sebaceous differentiation, suggesting that this condition is unlikely to be due to germ-line mutation of mismatch repair genes.
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ranking = 48.897792787333
keywords = microsatellite instability, microsatellite, instability
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5/178. Terminal deletion, del(1)(p36.3), detected through screening for terminal deletions in patients with unclassified malformation syndromes.

    We report on a 4 year-old girl with a 1p36.3-pter deletion. Clinical findings included minor anomalies of face and distal limbs, patent ductus arteriosus, the Ebstein heart anomaly, and brain atrophy with seizures. Conventional GTG-banded chromosome analysis revealed a normal (46,XX) result. Subsequent analysis by fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) using distal probes demonstrated a deletion of 1p36.6-pter. Molecular investigations with microsatellite markers showed hemizygosity at three loci at 1p36.3 with loss of the paternal allele. The deletion of 1p36.3 is difficult to identify by banding alone; indeed, our patient represents the third reported case with a del(1)(p36.3) that was detected only after more detailed analysis. In all three cases the deletion was detected through screening of patients with multiple congenital anomalies/mental retardation syndromes suggestive of autosomal chromosome aberrations for subtelomeric submicroscopic deletions by means of FISH or microsatellite marker analysis. On the basis of these observations we highly recommend that FISH with a subtelomeric 1p probe be routinely performed in patients with similar facial phenotype, severe mental retardation and seizures, and a heart malformation, particularly the ebstein anomaly.
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ranking = 5.1450592045976
keywords = microsatellite
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6/178. Parental origin of the isochromosome 12p in Pallister-Killian syndrome: molecular analysis of one patient and review of the reported cases.

    Pallister-Killian syndrome (PKS) is characterized by multiple congenital anomalies including pigmentary skin changes, mental retardation, and the mosaic presence of a tissue-limited isochromosome 12p [i(12p)]. Mechanism(s) of formation and parental origin of the isochromosome are not well understood. In this study, microsatellite DNA markers of chromosome 12p were used to identify the parental origin of the extra chromosome in an 8-year-old previously reported patient with PKS. The i(12p) was found to be maternally inherited. Reported cases of PKS where the parental origin of the i(12p) was determined were also reviewed. In all the cases, with one exception, the errors were found to be maternal in origin. Premeiotic mitotic error may be the most likely mechanism for i(12p) formation in this syndrome.
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ranking = 2.5725296022988
keywords = microsatellite
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7/178. Germline hMSH2 and differential somatic mutations in patients with Turcot's syndrome.

    Turcot's syndrome is characterized clinically by the occurrence of primary brain tumor and colorectal tumor and has in previous reports been shown to be associated with germline mutations in the genes APC, hMLH1, and hPMS2. Here we describe three patients with Turcot's syndrome, each having colorectal adenocarcinoma and malignant glioma. All the colorectal and brain tumors from these patients showed replication errors in most of the microsatellite loci investigated. Search for underlying germline mutations in the nucleotide mismatch repair genes revealed three different hMSH2 mutations. All colorectal tumors showed a frameshift in the A(10) tract in the coding sequence of the transforming growth factor beta type II receptor (TGFBRII) gene, but no such change was detected in any of the brain tumors. frameshift mutation in the BAX gene was found in one colon carcinoma and mutations in insulin-like growth factor type II receptor (IGFIIR) gene in one glioma. Our data have broadened the possible mutation spectrum of patients with Turcot's syndrome. The difference in the mutation spectrum of TGFBRII, BAX, and IGFIIR between brain and colorectal tumors in these individuals suggests that the mutator phenotype may target different pathogenic pathways in the oncogenic process of the two organs.
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ranking = 2.5725296022988
keywords = microsatellite
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8/178. X-linked mental retardation syndrome with seizures, hypogammaglobulinemia, and progressive gait disturbance is regionally mapped between xq21.33 and Xq23.

    We identified a family with three males in two generations with moderate mental retardation. The two oldest were first cousins whose mothers were sisters. The third affected was a grandson through a daughter of one of the sisters, strongly suggesting X- linked inheritance. The affected males had prominent glabella, synophrys, prognathism, generalized hirsutism, and bilateral single palmar creases. All developed seizures in childhood. The two oldest have had a slow deterioration in neurological status with poor gait and balance and progressive weakness. No deterioration in their mental status has been observed. The oldest had cerebellar atrophy confirmed on computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging scans of the brain and prolonged nerve conduction velocity. Two of the males had hypogammaglobulinemia (IgA deficient). Two-point linkage analysis using 27 microsatellite markers on the x chromosome resulted in a maximum lod score of 2.23 at straight theta = 0 for locus DSX101. Recombination was observed at locus DSX1170 in Xq21.33 and locus DXS8067 in Xq23. We conclude that this family represents an X-linked disorder associated with a recognizable phenotype, progressive neurological deterioration, and variable hypogammaglobulinemia. The gene appears to lie between Xq21.33 and Xq23.
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ranking = 2.5725296022988
keywords = microsatellite
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9/178. Molecular genetic diagnosis of the familial myxoma syndrome (carney complex).

    We describe an individual in whom molecular genetic testing provided a diagnosis of the carney complex, an autosomal dominant syndrome comprising cutaneous and cardiac myxomas, spotty pigmentation of the skin, and endocrinopathy. Recently, we localized the carney complex disease gene to chromosome region 17q2. Our patient was a member of a family segregating the carney complex, but was not, himself, initially thought to be affected. Haplotype analysis based on genotyping studies with 17q2 microsatellites predicted that this individual was, in fact, affected by carney complex and was at risk for development of myxomas. Further clinical evaluation and re-review of prior pathologic studies, then, confirmed the DNA-based diagnosis. This report highlights the difficulty in establishing a diagnosis of carney complex based on clinical and pathologic findings alone, and we suggest that molecular genetic analyses provide an important diagnostic method for this familial myxoma syndrome.
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ranking = 2.5725296022988
keywords = microsatellite
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10/178. Kabuki make-up syndrome is not caused by microdeletion close to the van der Woude syndrome critical region at 1q32-q41.

    We reported on a 5-year-old Japanese girl with clinical manifestations of Kabuki make-up syndrome (KMS) and van der Woude syndrome (VWS). Since the concurrence of the two syndromes is known in four patients, including ours, it suggests a common cause. Assuming that the association of the two syndromes was caused by a microdeletion involving the putative KMS/VWS genes, we carried out fluorescence in situ hybridization and microsatellite analyses using PAC clones and dinucleotide repeat markers spanning the VWS1 critical region at 1q32-q41. No deletion was detected at the VWS1 critical region.
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ranking = 2.5725296022988
keywords = microsatellite
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