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1/451. Phakomatosis pigmentovascularis: A new case with renal angiomas and some considerations about the classification.

    We report phakomatosis pigmentovascularis detected in a Caucasian child characterized by the presence of a nevus flammeus and nevus anemicus on the face, a telangiectatic linear nevus of the right leg, and a very extensive blue spot covering 60% of the body surface, with ocular melanosis. Multiple angiomatous lesions of the kidney are associated without alterations of the central nervous system (CNS). This association has not been reported before; it could be a further expression of the complex of developmental defects. Our case corresponds exactly to type IIb in the classification of phakomatosis pigmentovascularis proposed by Hasegawa. As this classification seems very extensive, the higher incidence of cases corresponding to the second subtype suggests that we should identify it by the term phakomatosis pigmentovascularis, while the others could be considered as only very uncommon variants.
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2/451. patients with CHARGE association: a model to study saccular function in the human.

    The term CHARGE association refers to a combination of congenital malformations, the mnemonic CHARGE designating the most frequently occurring anomalies in the constellation. "C" indicates coloboma of the retina, "H" heart defects, "A" choanal atresia, "R" retarded growth and/or central nervous system anomalies, "G" genital hypoplasia, and "E" ear anomalies and/or deafness. The inner ear anomaly consists of a specific form of labyrinthine dysplasia that includes Mondini dysplasia of the pars inferior (cochlea and saccule) and complete absence of the pars superior (utricle and semicircular canals). We observed the development of a child with CHARGE association up to the age of 10 years. There was complete absence of nystagmic response to bithermal caloric and rotatory pendular stimuli. A nystagmic reaction was elicited by the off-vertical axis rotation test, indicating stimulation of the saccular macula, the sole remaining vestibular sense organ in this dysplasia. This reaffirms that the saccule is a vestibular organ, even though it is located in the pars inferior. In spite of the severe bilateral vestibular deficit and coloboma of the retina, the child was able to walk at the age of 2 years. The delay in the development of walking was not due to central nervous system anomalies, as suggested by the "R" of the acronym CHARGE, but rather, to the severe sensorineural visual and vestibular deficits.
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3/451. Epidermal naevus syndrome and hypophosphataemic rickets: description of a patient with central nervous system anomalies and review of the literature.

    The epidermal naevus syndrome (ENS) is a rare dermatological condition consisting of congenital epidermal nevi associated with anomalies in the central nervous system, bones, eyes, hear or genito-urinary system. We report a new case of ENS associated with hypophosphataemic rickets. The girl was born with a mixed-type epidermal naevus and skeletal anomalies. Hypophosphataemic rickets was diagnosed at the age of 2.5 years. At 14 years of age. MRI of the head demonstrated right brain hypotrophy, a left temporal arachnoid cyst and asymmetric lateral ventricles. We reviewed the literature and found 13 reported cases of ENS associated with hypophosphataemic rickets. Conclusion We report a further patient with epidermal naevus syndrome and hypophosphataemic rickets, followed from birth to the age of 15 years, who had structural central nervous system anomalies with normal intellectual functioning. A comprehensive neurological work up is recommended in patients with epidermal naevus syndrome.
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4/451. Postural hypotension in idiopathic Parkinson's disease. Etiopathology.

    Postural changes in blood pressure were recorded in all 391 patients suffering from Parkinson's syndrome over a period of six years. Intraarterial blood pressure studies were carried out in those with significant postural hypotension. Histological examination of the entire central nervous system and the sympathetic ganglia was performed in six patients suffering from idiopathic Parksinson's disease. Five of the six patients had lewy bodies in the sympathetic ganglia. Loss of nerve cells was noted in the sympathetic ganglia in those patients that demonstrated postural hypotension. The severity of the lesions in the ganglia correlated with the severity of postural hypotension in idiopathic Parkinson's disease, One case of shy-drager syndrome was similarly studied to demonstrate the differences in spinal cord and sympathetic ganglia lesions in the two conditions.
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5/451. Abnormal prenatal sonographic findings in the posterior cranial fossa: a case of Joubert's syndrome.

    Joubert's syndrome is a well-documented but rare disorder characterized by a variable combination of central nervous system, respiratory, renal and eye anomalies. The most significant and constant neuropathological finding is partial or complete agenesis of the cerebellar vermis. The syndrome was first described by Joubert and colleagues as a familial agenesis of the cerebellar vermis and appears to be inherited as an autosomal recessive trait. A case of Joubert's syndrome is described in which second-trimester ultrasonography demonstrated abnormal findings in the fetal posterior fossa with associated renal abnormalities. However, postnatal sonography of the posterior fossa could not confirm the prenatal findings, and the diagnosis of Joubert's syndrome was only later established by computed tomography of the neonatal brain in the knowledge of the characteristic clinical picture.
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6/451. Linear epidermal nevus and nevus sebaceus syndromes: a clinicopathologic study of 3 patients.

    BACKGROUND: Linear epidermal nevus syndrome and linear sebaceus nevus syndrome are rare neurocutaneous syndromes characterized by epidermal nevi, epilepsy, and mental retardation. Pathologic descriptions of the central nervous system findings in such patients are rare. DESIGN: We examined the clinicopathologic features of 2 patients with linear epidermal nevus syndrome and 1 with nevus sebaceus syndrome who underwent surgical resections for chronic epilepsy in a tertiary referral center with a high volume of epilepsy surgery. RESULTS: patients included 3 females, aged 11 months (patient 1), 8 years (patient 2), and 2 1/2 years (patient 3) at the time of surgery. The duration of seizures prior to surgery was 11 months, 6 years, and 28 months, respectively. Two patients had epidermal nevi involving the head region (patients 1 and 3), and 1 had a nevus sebaceus of Jadassohn (patient 2); patient 2 had a choristoma, and patient 3 had a dermoid cyst in the eye region. Patient 1 demonstrated hemimegalencephaly radiographically. Histologic examination of resected cortical tissue in patients 1 and 2 demonstrated severe diffuse cortical dysplasia characterized by a disorganized cortical architectural pattern, a haphazard orientation of cortical neurons, and increased molecular layer neurons. Gyral fusion was seen in patient 1. Pial glioneuronal hamartomas were observed in patient 1. Prominent cortical astrocytosis was seen in patients 1 and 2, and foci of microcalcification were evident in patient 1. Cortical dysplasia was milder in patient 3 and consisted of an increased number of molecular layer neurons. Neuronal heterotopia was observed in all 3 patients. CONCLUSION: The spectrum of neuronal migration abnormalities in the setting of these syndromes may be variable in terms of its histologic phenotypic manifestations.
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7/451. kearns-sayre syndrome with features of Pearson's marrow-pancreas syndrome and a novel 2905-base pair mitochondrial dna deletion.

    kearns-sayre syndrome (KSS) and Pearson's marrow-pancreas syndrome (PMPS) are rare disorders caused by the same molecular defect, one of several deletion mutations in mitochondrial dna (mtDNA). KSS is an encephalomyopathy with ophthalmoplegia, retinal degeneration, ataxia, and endocrine abnormalities. PMPS is a disorder of childhood characterized by refractory anemia, vacuolization of bone marrow cells, and exocrine pancreas dysfunction. Children with PMPS that have a mild phenotype, or are supported through bone marrow failure, often develop the encephalomyopathic features of KSS. The subject of numerous reports in the neuromuscular, genetic, and pediatric literature in recent years, very few cases of either disorder have ever been studied at autopsy. We report the results of our studies of a patient with clinically documented KSS who presented with renal dysfunction and was found to have a novel mtDNA deletion and degenerative changes in the central nervous system, retina, skeletal muscle, and pancreas.
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8/451. Increased density of oligodendrocytes in childhood ataxia with diffuse central hypomyelination (CACH) syndrome: neuropathological and biochemical study of two cases.

    We report neuropathological, biochemical and molecular studies on two patients with childhood ataxia with diffuse central nervous system hypomyelination (CACH) syndrome, a leukodystrophy recently defined according to clinical and radiological criteria. Both had severe cavitating orthochromatic leukodystrophy without atrophy, predominating in hemispheric white matter, whereas U-fibers, internal capsule, corpus callosum, anterior commissure and cerebellar white matter were relatively spared. The severity of white matter lesions contrasted with the rarity of myelin breakdown products and astroglial and microglial reactions. In the white matter, there was an increase in a homogeneous cell population with the morphological features of oligodendrocytes, in many instances presenting an abundant cytoplasm like myelination glia. These cells were negative for glial fibrillary acidic protein and antibodies PGM1 and MIB1. Some were positive for myelin basic protein, proteolipid protein (PLP), and myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein, but the majority were positive for human 2'-3' cyclic nucleotide 3' phosphodiesterase and all were positive for carbonic anhydrase ii, confirming that they are oligodendrocytes. Myelin protein and lipid content were reduced. The PLP gene, analyzed in one case, was not mutated or duplicated. The increased number of oligodendrocytes without mitotic activity suggests an intrinsic oligodendroglial defect or an abnormal interaction with axons or other glial cells. This neuropathological study supports the notion that CACH syndrome constitutes a specific entity.
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9/451. The wide spectrum of clinical expression in Adams-Oliver syndrome: a report of two cases.

    Two children are described with the combination of aplasia cutis congenita (ACC) and transverse limb defects known as Adams-Oliver syndrome. Whereas in the first child the typical features of ACC, syndactyly and transverse nail dystrophy were only mildly expressed and associated defects of the central nervous system and cardiac malformations were absent, the second child suffered from a very severe expression of the syndrome, with a combination of ACC, syndactyly, cutis marmorata telangiectatica congenita and multiple cardiac and central nervous system malformations which resulted in fatal central respiratory insufficiency.
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keywords = nervous system
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10/451. The smith-magenis syndrome: a new case with infant spasms.

    The smith-magenis syndrome (SMS) is characterized by congenital anomalies, mental retardation and the interstitial deletion of the 17p. 11.2 chromosome. The subjects affected by this syndrome show cranio-facial dysmorphias, brachycephalia, skeletal, ocular, cardiac, genitourinary and otolaryngological anomalies. The central nervous system is affected and this may be shown by psychomotor retardation, intellective deficit, electroencephalographic alterations (reduced/missing REM phase); the neuroradiological tests detect megacisterna magna, cerebellar hypoplasia, cortical dysplasia, ventricular asymmetry. Behavioural troubles are frequent and, among them, self-aggressive conducts (tearing out the nails). The syndrome is associated with the interstitial deletion of the 17p. 11.2 chromosome. The diagnosis can be made in the pre-natal period and a mosaic situation is possible. Even though the cases of SMS reported in the literature allow defining a characteristic phenotype, studies have been carried out to quantify the deletion of the chromosome 17 in order to identify the chromosomic tract which is responsible for the phenotypical induction. The deletion can either appear de novo or come from one of the parents. In addition, these subjects can show peripheral neuropathy, missing or reduced deep tendon reflexes and (rarely) epileptic crises. However, by reviewing the literature, no descriptions of patients affected by infant spasms are pointed out. This report refers to a new case of smith-magenis syndrome in a nine-month-old girl with spasms in extension.
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