Cases reported "Syndrome"

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1/2015. Partial trisomy 9q--chromosomal syndrome.

    The clinical features consisting mainly of enophthalmos, beaked nose, narrow palpebral fissures, receding chin, long fingers and toes, typical for chromsomal syndrome or partial trisomy 9q, were confirmed in a new case.
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2/2015. An extrahepatic bile duct metastasis from a gallbladder cancer mimicking Mirizzi's syndrome.

    We report a case of an extrahepatic bile duct metastasis from a gallbladder cancer that mimicked Mirizzi's syndrome on cholangiography. A 67-yr-old woman was admitted to our hospital with a diagnosis of acute calculous cholecystitis. As obstructive jaundice developed after the admission, percutaneous transhepatic biliary drainage was performed to ameliorate the jaundice and to evaluate the biliary system. Tube cholangiography revealed bile duct obstruction at the hepatic hilus, and extrinsic compression of the lateral aspect of the common hepatic duct, with nonvisualization of the gallbladder. No impacted cystic duct stone was visualized on CT or ultrasonography. laparotomy revealed a gallbladder tumor as well as an extrahepatic bile duct tumor. We diagnosed that the latter was a metastasis from the gallbladder cancer, based on the histopathological features. This case is unique in that the extrahepatic bile duct metastasis obstructed both the common hepatic duct and the cystic duct, giving the appearance of Mirizzi's syndrome on cholangiography. Metastatic bile duct tumors that mimic Mirizzi's syndrome have not been previously reported. The presence of this condition should be suspected in patients with the cholangiographic features of Mirizzi's syndrome, when the CT or ultrasonographic findings fail to demonstrate an impacted cystic duct stone.
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3/2015. Abnormal deposition of type VII collagen in Kindler syndrome.

    Kindler syndrome is an extremely rare genetic disorder with features of epidermolysis bullosa and poikiloderma congenitale. Approximately 70 cases have been documented in the past 50 years, but only a few investigations of the basement membrane components have been done on these patients. The aim of this study was to examine the components of the basement membrane zone in search of the pathobiological defect(s) responsible for the clinical findings from a female 16-year-old patient diagnosed with Kindler syndrome. This patient also suffered from advanced early-onset periodontal disease. Biopsies were taken from inflamed gingiva and noninflamed oral mucosa as part of periodontal treatment. The basement membrane zone was examined using immunofluorescence microscopy to bullous pemphigoid antigens 1 and 2, collagen types IV and VII, laminins-1 and -5, and integrins alpha3beta1 and alpha6beta4. The biopsies studied revealed blistering with trauma above the level of lamina densa based on distribution of type IV collagen and laminin-1 at the blister floor. In the noninflamed mucosa, discontinuous areas of the basement membrane zone were found. Expression of the basement membrane zone components and the integrins studied appeared otherwise normal with the exception of type VII collagen which was found in abnormal locations deep in the connective tissue stroma. Our results suggest that Kindler syndrome is associated with abnormalities in the construction of the basement membrane, especially in the expression of type VII collagen. These alterations are likely to play a role as etiological factors leading to blister formation and early onset periodontal disease.
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4/2015. MR and CT imaging in the Dyke-Davidoff-Masson syndrome. Report of three cases and contribution to pathogenesis and differential diagnosis.

    Cerebral hemiatrophy or Dyke-Davidoff-Masson syndrome is a condition characterized by seizures, facial asymmetry, contralateral hemiplegia or hemiparesis, and mental retardation. These findings are due to cerebral injury that may occur early in life or in utero. The radiological features are unilateral loss of cerebral volume and associated compensatory bone alterations in the calvarium, like thickening, hyperpneumatization of the paranasal sinuses and mastoid cells and elevation of the petrous ridge. The authors describe three cases. Classical findings of the syndrome are present in variable degrees according to the extent of the brain injury. Pathogenesis is commented.
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5/2015. Epidermal naevus syndrome and hypophosphataemic rickets: description of a patient with central nervous system anomalies and review of the literature.

    The epidermal naevus syndrome (ENS) is a rare dermatological condition consisting of congenital epidermal nevi associated with anomalies in the central nervous system, bones, eyes, hear or genito-urinary system. We report a new case of ENS associated with hypophosphataemic rickets. The girl was born with a mixed-type epidermal naevus and skeletal anomalies. Hypophosphataemic rickets was diagnosed at the age of 2.5 years. At 14 years of age. MRI of the head demonstrated right brain hypotrophy, a left temporal arachnoid cyst and asymmetric lateral ventricles. We reviewed the literature and found 13 reported cases of ENS associated with hypophosphataemic rickets. Conclusion We report a further patient with epidermal naevus syndrome and hypophosphataemic rickets, followed from birth to the age of 15 years, who had structural central nervous system anomalies with normal intellectual functioning. A comprehensive neurological work up is recommended in patients with epidermal naevus syndrome.
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6/2015. Prenatal and postnatal management of hyperprostaglandin E syndrome after genetic diagnosis from amniocytes.

    OBJECTIVE: To describe prenatal genetic diagnosis in hyperprostaglandin E syndrome (HPS) and the effect of indomethacin therapy on the course of the disease before birth and in the neonatal period. methods: Mutational analysis of the ROMK channel gene (KCNJ1) from amniocytes by single-strand conformational analysis and direct sequencing. review of the clinical and laboratory findings during pregnancy and the neonatal period in two siblings affected with HPS. RESULTS: Compound heterozygosity of the fetus in KCNJ1 (D74Y/P110L) confirmed the clinical diagnosis of HPS at 26 weeks of gestation. indomethacin therapy from 26 to 31 weeks prevented further progression of polyhydramnios without major side effects. In contrast to the elder brother, who had been diagnosed at the age of 2 months, the neonatal course was uncomplicated. Hypovolemic renal failure after excessive renal loss of salt and water could be prevented and severe nephrocalcinosis did not occur. CONCLUSIONS: Genetic diagnosis of HPS and subsequent prenatal indomethacin therapy seems to have a beneficial effect on the natural course of HPS, especially progression of polyhydramnios; therefore, extreme prematurity could be prevented. Also, postnatally the early diagnosis allows the effective water and electrolyte substitution before severe volume depletion.
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7/2015. Child with velocardiofacial syndrome and del (4)(q34.2): another critical region associated with a velocardiofacial syndrome-like phenotype.

    We report on a child with congenital heart disease (atrial septal defect, ventricular septal defect, pulmonic stenosis), submucosal cleft palate, hypernasal speech, learning difficulties, and right fifth finger anomaly manifestations, consistent with velocardiofacial syndrome (VCFS); however, cytogenetic analysis demonstrated a small terminal deletion of the segment 4q34.2 to 4qter. Fluorescent in situ hybridization did not identify a deletion of the critical region associated with VCFS. In previously reported 4q deletions with a breakpoint distal to 4q34.2, no cardiac defects or cleft of palate were reported. Our patient has a deletion of 4q34.2 to 4qter and has palate and cardiac involvement and minor learning difficulties, which implies that genes involved in heart and palate development lie distal to 4q34.2, and that the critical region for more severe mental retardation on 4q may reside proximal to 4q34.2. These results suggest that a distal 4q deletion can lead to a phenotype similar to VCFS and emphasizes the importance of searching for other karyotype abnormalities when a VCFS-like phenotype is present and a 22q deletion is not identified.
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keywords = nasal
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8/2015. Rare dental abnormalities seen in oculo-facio-cardio-dental (OFCD) syndrome: three new cases and review of nine patients.

    Oculo-facio-cardio-dental syndrome is a very rare condition. So far, only nine cases have been documented. We report on three additional female patients representing the same entity. The clinical findings were: congenital cataract, microphthalmia/microcornea, secondary glaucoma, vision impairment, ptosis, long narrow face, high nasal bridge, broad nasal tip with separated cartilages, long philtrum, cleft palate, atrial septal defect, ventricular septal defect, and skeletal anomalies. The following dental abnormalities were found: radiculomegaly, delayed dentition, oligodontia, root dilacerations (extension), and malocclusion. For the first time, fusion of teeth and hyperdontia of permanent upper teeth were seen. In addition, structural and morphological dental changes were noted. These findings expand the clinical spectrum of the syndrome.
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9/2015. Congenital hydranencephalic-hydrocephalic syndrome associated with mitochondrial dysfunction.

    We report the case of a 3-year-old girl, the only child of a nonconsanguineous couple without relevant antecedents, who was born with hydranencephalic-hydrocephalic syndrome diagnosed by ultrasonography at gestation week 28, and who was treated during the neonatal period by implantation of a ventriculoperitoneal shunt. She showed severe mental retardation, and died at age 4 years following an acute respiratory infection. Due to persistently high lactic acid levels in blood, muscle and skin biopsies were taken. Analysis of muscle biopsies revealed microscopic and ultrastructural alterations typical of mitochondrial disorders, and low levels of complexes III and IV of the mitochondrial respiratory chain. The enzymes of the pyruvate dehydrogenase complex showed normal activities in cultured skin fibroblasts. These findings raise the possibility that at least some cases of congenital hydranencephalic-hydrocephalic syndrome may be due to alterations in the mitochondrial respiratory chain.
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10/2015. prenatal diagnosis of thrombocytopenia absent radius (TAR) syndrome and vaginal delivery.

    A fetus with bilateral radial aplasia was identified on routine ultrasound. The diagnosis of thrombocytopenia absent radius (TAR) syndrome was confirmed with cordocentesis. The differential diagnosis of radial aplasia and prenatal tests available to assist with management are discussed. cordocentesis offered useful information in the management of this case for both diagnosis and in deciding the route of delivery. We believe our case represents the first prenatal diagnosis of TAR syndrome in which vaginal delivery of a liveborn infant was intentionally allowed. Caesarean delivery may not be necessary for all fetuses diagnosed with TAR syndrome.
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