Cases reported "Syndrome"

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1/489. Severe Lhermitte-Duclos disease with unique germline mutation of PTEN.

    Germline mutations in the PTEN gene have recently been identified in some individuals with Cowden disease (CD), Lhermitte-Duclos disease (LDD), and Bannayan-Zonana syndrome. We report on a patient with CD and LDD in whom a unique de novo germline missense mutation is present in the PTEN gene. Direct sequence analysis detected a transitional change (T-->C) at nucleotide 335, resulting in substitution of the amino acid proline for leucine. The mutation is in exon 5, which has been proposed as a "hot-spot" for germline mutations. Comparison of this patient's clinical course with the previously reported cases of CD and LDD shows more extensive and more severe clinical findings than reported previously. Findings in this patient contribute to the current understanding of germline PTEN mutations and clinical outcome.
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2/489. Fibroblast growth factor homologous factor 2 (FHF2): gene structure, expression and mapping to the Borjeson-Forssman-Lehmann syndrome region in Xq26 delineated by a duplication breakpoint in a BFLS-like patient.

    Borjeson-Forssman-Lehmann syndrome (BFLS) is a syndromal X-linked mental retardation, which maps by linkage to the q26 region of the human x chromosome. We have identified a male patient with BFLS-like features and a duplication, 46,Y,dup(X)(q26q28), inherited from his phenotypically normal mother. fluorescence in situ hybridisation using yeast artificial chromosome clones from Xq26 localised the duplication breakpoint to an approximately 400-kb interval in the Xq26.3 region between DXS155 and DXS294/DXS730. database searches and analysis of available genomic dna sequence from the region revealed the presence of the fibroblast growth factor homologous factor gene, FHF2, within the duplication breakpoint interval. The gene structure of FHF2 was determined and two new exons were identified, including a new 5' end exon, 1B. FHF2 is a large gene extending over approximately 200 kb in Xq26.3 and is composed of at least seven exons. It shows tissue-specific alternative splicing and alternative transcription starts. Northern blot hybridisation showed highest expression in brain and skeletal muscle. The FHF2 gene localisation and tissue-specific expression pattern suggest it to be a candidate gene for familial cases of the BFLS syndrome and other syndromal and non-specific forms of X-linked mental retardation mapping to the region.
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3/489. Germline hMSH2 and differential somatic mutations in patients with Turcot's syndrome.

    Turcot's syndrome is characterized clinically by the occurrence of primary brain tumor and colorectal tumor and has in previous reports been shown to be associated with germline mutations in the genes APC, hMLH1, and hPMS2. Here we describe three patients with Turcot's syndrome, each having colorectal adenocarcinoma and malignant glioma. All the colorectal and brain tumors from these patients showed replication errors in most of the microsatellite loci investigated. Search for underlying germline mutations in the nucleotide mismatch repair genes revealed three different hMSH2 mutations. All colorectal tumors showed a frameshift in the A(10) tract in the coding sequence of the transforming growth factor beta type II receptor (TGFBRII) gene, but no such change was detected in any of the brain tumors. frameshift mutation in the BAX gene was found in one colon carcinoma and mutations in insulin-like growth factor type II receptor (IGFIIR) gene in one glioma. Our data have broadened the possible mutation spectrum of patients with Turcot's syndrome. The difference in the mutation spectrum of TGFBRII, BAX, and IGFIIR between brain and colorectal tumors in these individuals suggests that the mutator phenotype may target different pathogenic pathways in the oncogenic process of the two organs.
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4/489. campomelic dysplasia translocation breakpoints are scattered over 1 Mb proximal to SOX9: evidence for an extended control region.

    campomelic dysplasia (CD), a skeletal malformation syndrome with or without XY sex reversal, is usually caused by mutations within the SOX9 gene on distal 17q. Several CD translocation and inversion cases have been described with breakpoints outside the coding region, mapping to locations >130 kb proximal to SOX9. Such cases are generally less severely affected than cases with SOX9 coding-region mutations, as is borne out by three new translocation cases that we present. We have cloned the region extending 1.2 Mb upstream of the SOX9 gene in overlapping bacterial-artificial-chromosome and P1-artificial-chromosome clones and have established a restriction map with rare-cutter enzymes. With sequence-tagged-site-content mapping in somatic-cell hybrids, as well as with FISH, we have precisely mapped the breakpoints of the three new and of three previously described CD cases. The six CD breakpoints map to an interval that is 140-950 kb proximal to the SOX9 gene. With exon trapping, we could isolate five potential exons from the YAC 946E12 that spans the region, four of which could be placed in the contig in the vicinity of the breakpoints. They show the same transcriptional orientation, but only two have an open reading frame (ORF). We failed to detect expression of these fragments in several human and mouse cDNA libraries, as well as on northern blots. Genomic sequence totaling 1,063 kb from the SOX9 5'-flanking region was determined and was analyzed by the gene-prediction program GENSCAN and by a search of dbEST and other databases. No genes or transcripts could be identified. Together, these data suggest that the chromosomal rearrangements most likely remove one or more cis-regulatory elements from an extended SOX9 control region.
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5/489. Recurrent mutations in the iron regulatory element of L-ferritin in hereditary hyperferritinemia-cataract syndrome.

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Hereditary hyperferritinemia-cataract syndrome (HHCS) is an autosomal dominant disorder characterized by bilateral cataracts and increased serum and tissue L-ferritin, in the absence of iron overload. The deregulation of ferritin production is caused by heterogeneous mutations in the iron regulatory element (IRE) of L-ferritin that interfere with the binding of iron regulatory proteins. DESIGN AND methods: We have identified several patients from three unrelated Italian families with HHCS. Iron parameters were assessed by standard methods. The IRE element of L-ferritin was amplified by PCR using appropriate primers and directly sequenced. RESULTS: Ferritin levels ranged from 918 microg/L to 2490 microg/L in the patients studied. In one family bilateral cataracts were diagnosed early in life, whereas in the others cataracts were diagnosed around 40-50 years. The female proband of family 3 presented with a severe iron deficiency anemia, which was unrecognized because of the increased ferritin values. Sequencing of the IRE element of L-ferritin in the probands of the three families identified three different nucleotide substitutions ( 32 GAE A, 40 AAE G and 39 CT) in the IRE of L-ferritin. These mutations have already been reported in unrelated subjects of different ethnic origins. INTERPRETATION AND CONCLUSIONS: Our findings are consistent with recurrent mutations associated with HHCS and underline the importance of this syndrome in the differential diagnosis of unexplained hyperferritinemia. In addition, the findings highlight the role played by transferrin saturation in the diagnosis of iron deficiency in these patients.
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6/489. syndrome of microcephaly, Dandy-Walker malformation, and wilms tumor caused by mosaic variegated aneuploidy with premature centromere division (PCD): report of a new case and review of the literature.

    We report a male infant with multiple congenital anomalies and mosaic variegated aneuploidy; a rare cytogenetic abnormality characterized by mosaicism for several different aneuploidies involving many different chromosomes. He had prenatal-onset growth retardation, microcephaly, dysmorphic face, seizures, hypotonia, feeding difficulty, and developmental delay. In addition, he developed bilateral Wilms tumors. Neuroradiological examination revealed Dandy-Walker malformation and hypoplasia of the cerebral hemisphere and pons. cytogenetic analysis revealed various multiple numerical aneuploidies in blood lymphocytes, fibroblasts, and bone marrow cells, together with premature centromere division (PCD). Peripheral blood chromosome analysis from his parents also showed PCD, but no aneuploid cells. The clinical phenotype and multiple aneuploidies of the patient may be a consequence of the homozygous PCD trait inherited from his parents. Comparison with previously reported cases of multiple aneuploidy suggests that mosaic variegated aneuploidy with PCD may be a clinically recognizable syndrome with major phenotypes being mental retardation, microcephaly, structural brain anomalies (including Dandy-Walker malformation), and possible cancer predisposition.
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7/489. Probing the human genome in search for a new 3q syndrome.

    We report a case of partial trisomy 3q syndrome which could not be clinically identified as a distinct entity. The major clinical findings include: psychomotor delay with behavioral problems, coarse facial features, frontal bossing, bushy eyebrows, prominent ears, a small upturned nose and a history of repaired inguinal hernia. There was an additional material on chromosome 4, which could easily be matched with bands 18q21.2-q22; 2p24-p25; 16p21-p23; 10p12-p14; 20q12-q13.2; 15q25-q26.2; 8p23-p24.2 and 6p22.3-p24 and a new syndrome could apparently be suggested based on GTG techniques alone. Nevertheless, by FISH technique, the extra segment was identified as a part of 3q26.3-qter. We provide an extensive review of trisomy 3q syndrome and present a caveat of the consequences of description of new syndromes based on routine banding techniques especially in situations where the origin of chromosomal abnormalities is de novo or parents are not available for cytogenetic evaluation.
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8/489. Fatal group A Streptococcal toxic shock-like syndrome in a child with varicella: report of the first well documented case with detection of the genetic sequences that code for exotoxins spe A and B, in Sao Paulo, brazil.

    A previously healthy seven-year-old boy was admitted to the intensive care unit because of toxaemia associated with varicella. He rapidly developed shock and multisystem organ failure associated with the appearance of a deep-seated soft tissue infection and, despite aggressive treatment, died on hospital day 4. An M-non-typable, spe A and spe B positive Group A streptococcus was cultured from a deep soft tissue aspirate. The criteria for defining Streptococcal toxic shock-like syndrome were fulfilled. The authors discuss the clinical and pathophysiological aspects of this disease as well as some unusual clinical findings related to this case.
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9/489. A patient with neurofibromatosis type 1 and watery diarrhoea syndrome due to a VIP-producing adrenal phaeochromocytoma.

    A patient with neurofibromatosis type 1 and watery diarrhoea syndrome due to a VIP-producing adrenal phaeochromocytoma (Case Report). J Intern Med 1999; 246: 231-234. A 43-year-old patient with neurofibromatosis type 1 suffered from watery diarrhoea syndrome induced by excessive production of vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP) in an adrenal phaeochromocytoma. This case report emphasizes that patients with neurofibromatosis are prone to develop more than one disease induced by tumours originating from the neural crest. Since excessive VIP production in a phaeochromocytoma may mask the symptoms of catecholamine overproduction, and in view of the therapeutic consequences, neurofibromatosis patients with hyperVIP-aemia must be checked for the presence of a phaeochromocytoma.
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10/489. Autosomal recessive micrencephaly with simplified gyral pattern, abnormal myelination and arthrogryposis.

    The clinical courses, neuroimaging and muscle biopsy findings of two infants born to an inbred Arab family are described. They had a syndrome of micrencephaly with simplified gyral pattern, abnormal myelin formation and arthrogryposis. Increased variation of fiber size was seen in the muscle biopsy, creatine kinase, however was normal. Large areas of muscle were replaced by adipofibrous tissue. The infants had dysmorphic features consistent with the fetal akinesia/hypokinesia sequence. The abnormalities were suggestive of microlissencephaly probably associated with a dysgenetic process in the muscles. The syndrome showed an autosomal recessive inheritance.
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