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1/112. Uncommon causes of anterior knee pain: a case report of infrapatellar contracture syndrome.

    The uncommon causes of anterior knee pain should always be considered in the differential diagnosis of a painful knee when treatment of common origins become ineffective. A case is presented in which the revised diagnosis of infrapatellar contracture syndrome was made after noting delayed progress in the rehabilitation of an active female patient with a presumed anterior horn medial meniscus tear and a contracted patellar tendon. The patient improved after the treatment program was augmented with closed manipulation under arthroscopy and infrapatellar injection of both corticosteroids and a local anesthetic. Infrapatellar contraction syndrome and other uncommon sources of anterior knee pain, including arthrofibrosis, Hoffa's syndrome, tibial collateral ligament bursitis, saphenous nerve palsy, isolated ganglions of the anterior cruciate ligament, slipped capital femoral epiphysis, and knee tumors, are subsequently discussed. Delayed functional advancement in a rehabilitation program requires full reassessment of the patient's diagnosis and treatment plan. Alternative diagnoses of knee pain are not always of common origins. Ample knowledge of uncommon causes of anterior knee pain is necessary to form a full differential diagnosis in patients with challenging presentations.
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2/112. Clinics in diagnostic imaging (40). iliotibial band syndrome.

    A 51-year-old male cyclist presented with a mass over the lateral portion of his knee. MR scans showed a cystic collection deep to the iliotibial band (ITB). Diagnosis of the ITB syndrome and its differentiation from other cause of painful lateral knee masses, such as meniscal cyst, lateral collateral ligament injury and Segond fracture, are discussed.
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keywords = tibia
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3/112. exophthalmos, pretibial myxedema, osteoarthropathy syndrome associated with papillary fibroelastoma in the left ventricle.

    EMO syndrome, a rare complication of Graves' disease, exhibits exophthalmos, pretibial myxedema, and osteoarthropathy. The presence of functional thyrotropin receptors (TSHR) in adipocytes and osteoblasts, both of which we have recently observed, may be related to these extrathyroidal manifestations of Graves' disease. In addition, the expression of TSHR in the heart has recently been reported. We describe here a patient with Graves' disease exhibiting EMO syndrome with a papillary fibroelastoma in the left ventricle. Pathological examinations showed that the fibroelastoma contained alcian blue-stained mucinous materials that were also observed in the subcutaneous tissue of pretibial myxedema.
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keywords = tibia
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4/112. Patient with Weismann-Netter and Stuhl (toxopachyosteosis) syndrome with communicant hydrocephalus and arachnoid cyst.

    Weismann-Netter and Stuhl (toxopachyosteosis) syndrome is a rare bone disease, manifesting with anterior bowing of the tibiae, short stature and mild mental retardation. We report a patient with Weismann-Netter and Stuhl syndrome with an unusual manifestation communicant hydrocephalus and arachnoid cyst.
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keywords = tibia
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5/112. A Japanese case of Kindler syndrome.

    A 25-year-old Japanese woman presented with contracture of the fingers and toes, and difficulty in opening her mouth. Her grandparents are first cousins, but none of the other members of the family are affected. Bulla formation started at birth on areas of the skin that received pressure, and in infancy and early childhood the lesions were limited only to the acral areas. She also had bilateral, incomplete syndactylies involving all web spaces (Fig. 1a). The formation of blisters ceased after the age of 15 years, but a generalized progressive poikiloderma then appeared with accompanying cutaneous atrophy of the skin of the neck, trunk, and extremities (Fig. 1b). The patient experienced mild photosensitivity of the face and neck. At age 18 years, surgical removal of the webbing of all her fingers was performed. Oral examination showed atrophy of the buccal mucosa, and an inability to fully open the mouth. The patient also suffered from poor dentition and easily bleeding gums, but had no symptoms of esophageal dysfunction. histology of separate biopsy specimens, taken from the poikilodermatous pretibial and trunk skin, showed classical features of poikiloderma, namely epidermal atrophy with flattening of the rete ridges, vacuolization of basal keratinocytes, pigmentary incontinence, and mild dermal perivascularization (Fig. 2a). Interestingly, dyskeratotic cells (Fig. 2b) and eosinophilic rounded bodies (colloid bodies) (Fig. 2c) were frequently found at the basal keratinocyte layer and in the upper dermis, respectively. Pigment was also present in the upper epidermis. To rule out the possibility of a congenital epidermolysis bullosa, ultrastructural and immunofluorescence studies were performed. Ultrastructural studies demonstrated the reduplication of the basal lamina with branching structures within the upper dermis and cleavage between the lamina densa and the cell membrane of the keratinocytes (Fig. 3a). The numbers of associated anchoring fibrils did not seem to be reduced, and colloid bodies and dyskeratotic cells were detected. Immunofluorescence studies with the antibody against type VII collagen (LH 7 : 2) were subsequently carried out. The results showed extensive broad bands with intermittently discontinuous and reticular staining at the dermo-epidermal junction (DEJ) (Fig. 3b), whereas a linear distribution is typically seen in healthy tissue (data not shown). Interestingly, direct immunofluorescence studies revealed intracellular accumulation of immunoglobulin g (IgG), IgM, IgA, and C3 in colloid bodies under the basement membrane (Fig. 3c).
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keywords = tibia
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6/112. Are triphalangeal thumb-polysyndactyly syndrome (TPTPS) and tibial hemimelia-polysyndactyly-triphalangeal thumb syndrome (THPTTS) identical? A father with TPTPS and his daughter with THPTTS in a Thai family.

    We report on a Thai man who had triphalangeal thumb-polysyndactyly syndrome (TPTPS, MIM *190605) and his daughter who had tibial hemimelia-polysyndactyly-triphalangeal thumb syndrome (THPTTS, MIM *188770). The father had polysyndactyly of triphalangeal thumbs, syndactyly of fingers, duplicated distal phalanx of the left great toe, brachymesophalangy of toes, and the absence of middle phalanges of some toes. He was diagnosed as having TPTPS. His daughter was more severely affected, having complete syndactyly of five-fingered hands in rosebud fashion (Haas-type syndactyly), hypoplastic tibiae, absent patellae, thick and displaced fibulae, preaxial polysyndactyly of triphalangeal toes, and cutaneous syndactyly of some toes, the manifestations being consistent with THPTTS. Having two different syndromes in the same family suggests that they are actually the same disorder. A literature survey showed that there have been several families where THPTTS occurred with TPTPS or Haas-type syndactyly (and/or preaxial polydactyly type 2, PPD2). In addition, all loci for TPTPS, THPTTS, and PPD2 (and/or PPD3) have been assigned to chromosome band 7q36. These findings support our conclusion that TPTPS, PPD2 (and/or PPD3), and Haas-type syndactyly are a single genetic en-tity (THPTTS). We propose to call the condition "tibial hemimelia-polysyndactyly-triphalangeal thumbs syndrome." copyright 2000 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
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keywords = tibia
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7/112. Tibial aplasia--VACTERL association, a new syndrome?

    We report on a male infant, born to nonconsanguineous parents, with a vertebral anomaly, cardiac defect, tracheo-oesophageal fistula and hypospadias (VACTERL association) together with bilateral tibial aplasia. This pattern of abnormalities appears to represent a unique syndrome.
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keywords = tibia
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8/112. Campomelic dwarfism.

    The campomelic syndrome is a short-limb, usually fatal, neonatal dwarfism. It is characterized by bowed lower limbs, especially the tibia, usually associated with a cutaneous dimple over the anterior skin. There is delayed calcification of the epiphyses and delayed mineralization of the spine and pelvis. The cartilages of the tracheobronchial tree are hypoplastic, contributing to death from respiratory problems. Other associated abnormalities are unusual appearing facies, cleft palate, absent olfactory nerves and talipes equinovarus. Less commonly seen are cardiac, renal and brain anomalies.
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keywords = tibia
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9/112. 3-M syndrome: a prenatal ultrasonographic diagnosis.

    The ultrasonographic imaging of a fetus affected by 3-M syndrome is described. This is a primordial dwarfism with low birthweight, short stature, facial dysmorphism and normal mental development. The biparietal diameter and head circumference were in accordance with the gestational age at 18 weeks. The femur and tibia lengths were on the fifth centile and the radius, ulna and humerus lengths were below the fifth centile. A second scan at 22 weeks showed slowing of growth of all long bones, with the femur, tibia, fibula, humerus, radius and ulna lengths further below the fifth centile. The pregnancy was terminated and postmortem examination confirmed the prenatal diagnosis. The differential diagnosis of skeletal dysplasias characterized by a slow growth of long bones is discussed and the conclusion reached that the detection of shortened long bones (below the fifth centile) is the only ultrasonographic finding of 3-M syndrome.
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ranking = 2
keywords = tibia
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10/112. A novel syndrome involving primary skeletal growth and retardation in siblings.

    An identical pattern of malformations was found in two brothers both having microcephaly and severe developmental delay. Additionally, they had hypotelorism, epicanthic folds, and convergent strabismus. There was shortening of either the radius or the tibia and shortening of the first metacarpals. Persistently dorsally flexed fingers and toes were noted, all of which are unusually long. Both boys had a high-pitched voice and were unable to communicate verbally at the age of 4.5 years. They both developed short stature. One brother has anal atresia; the other had a pulmonary artery atresia, VSD, ASD, and an over-riding aorta. This apparently new syndrome is possibly an autosomal, or a X-linked recessive trait.
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ranking = 1
keywords = tibia
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