Cases reported "Syndrome"

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1/61. Gitelman disease associated with growth hormone deficiency, disturbances in vasopressin secretion and empty sella: a new hereditary renal tubular-pituitary syndrome?

    Gitelman disease was diagnosed in two unrelated children with hypokalemic metabolic alkalosis and growth failure (a boy and a girl aged 7 mo and 9.5 y, respectively, at clinical presentation) on the basis of mutations detected in the gene encoding the thiazide-sensitive NaCl cotransporter of the distal convoluted tubule. GH deficiency was demonstrated by specific diagnostic tests in both children. Hypertonic saline infusion tests showed a partial vasopressin deficiency in the girl and delayed secretion of this hormone in the boy. magnetic resonance imaging revealed an empty sella in both cases. Up to now, hypomagnesemia and hypocalciuria have been considered obligatory criteria for the diagnosis of Gitelman disease; however, our two patients had hypomagnesemia and hypocalciuria in less than half the determinations. GH replacement treatment was associated with a good clinical response in both children. It appears that these cases represent a new phenotype, not previously described in Gitelman disease, and that the entity may be considered a new complex hereditary renal tubular-pituitary syndrome.
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2/61. Syndrome of autosomal recessive polycystic kidneys with skeletal and facial anomalies is not linked to the ARPKD gene locus on chromosome 6p.

    We report on two sibs, both males, one born at 37 the other at 24 weeks of gestation, both with a syndrome similar to that seen in three sets of sibs by Gillessen-Kaesbach et al. [1993: Am J Med Genet 45:511-518]. Both propositi had polycystic kidneys and hepatic fibrosis indistinguishable from that seen in autosomal recessive polycystic kidney disease (ARPKD), and skeletal and facial anomalies. Skeletal abnormalities included "butterfly" vertebrae, square shape of pelvis, and brachymelia. The facial anomalies included hypertelorism, epicanthic folds, and anteverted nares. Additional external findings were apparently low-set ears and a short neck. Histopathological examination of the kidneys showed radial orientation and cystic dilatation of the cortical and medullar tubules. The liver showed "congenital hepatic fibrosis." The hepatic findings in the second infant were less severe. Renal abnormalities were limited to focal tubular cystic changes. Linkage analysis with polymorphic markers of the region 6p21.1-p12, flanking the gene locus of ARPKD, showed different haplotypes in the sibs, thus excluding the ARPKD gene locus in this family and indicating genetic heterogeneity.
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3/61. Renal tubular dysgenesis (RTD) - an important cause of the oligohydramnion-sequence. Report of 3 cases and review of the literature.

    Renal tubular dysgenesis (RTD) is a disorder characterized by neonatal renal failure and regular gross renal architecture, although the histological features of immature and shortened proximal tubules lead to neonatal death. The pathogenesis of this condition includes a congenital familial condition, a twin-twin transfusion syndrome, and an angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor intake by the mother. The clinical picture shows an association with oligohydramnia, pulmonary hypoplasia, and skull ossification defects. In the present paper, we report the occurrence of RTD in three infants of a consanguinous couple and compared our data with those of the literature. Our data confirm that late second trimester demonstration of oligohydramnion, with structurally normal kidneys and with or without skull ossification defects, allows the diagnosis of renal tubular dysgenesis, which, however, has to be confirmed by histological and immunohistological examinations of the kidney.
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4/61. Gitelman's syndrome (familial hypokalemia-hypomagnesemia).

    Gitelman's syndrome (GS) is a heritable renal disorder characterized by hypomagnesemia, hypokalemia and hypocalciuria, and distinct from Bartter's syndrome (BS). As compared to those with BS, patients with GS present at an older age, and they have a milder clinical picture, normal or slightly decreased concentrating ability, reduced urinary excretion of calcium, and permanently decreased serum magnesium level. GS is caused by defective NaCl transport in the distal convoluted tubule, and linked to the gene encoding the thiazide sensitive Na-Cl-cotransporter located on chromosome 16q. patients with BS, on the other hand, have mutations in the transporters in the thick ascending loop of henle (NKCC2, ROMK, and C1C-Kb). Treatment of GS consists of magnesium salt replacement. Long term prognosis in terms of maintaining growth, preserving renal function and life expectancy is excellent.
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5/61. Mimicry of surreptitious diuretic ingestion and the ability to make a genetic diagnosis.

    Gitelman's syndrome, also known as "hypocalciuric variant of Bartter's syndrome", is a cause of chronic hypokalemia and hypomagnesemia in adults. A specific gene has been found responsible for this disorder, encoding the thiazide-sensitive NaCl coporter (TSC) in the distal convoluted tubule. We describe a psychiatric patient with chronic symptomatic hypokalemia and hypomagnesemia whose electrolyte disturbances were subsequently misdiagnosed as an acute alcohol and benzodiazepine withdrawal syndrome, as chronic diuretic abuse and as a classical Bartter's syndrome. Finally, genetic investigation revealed the presence of mutations in the SLC12A3 gene leading to the proper diagnosis of Gitelman's syndrome. We emphasize that Gitelman's syndrome should be suspected in every hypokalemic patient with biochemical resemblance of diuretic ingestion, especially when repeated toxic screens for diuretics are negative. The ability to make a molecular-genetic diagnosis can be of practical benefit in confusing clinical settings.
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6/61. Galloway-Mowat syndrome: a glomerular basement membrane disorder?

    We report a female infant with Galloway-Mowat syndrome. In addition to the characteristic dysmorphic appearance, neurological anomalies and early-onset nephrotic syndrome, she had arachnodactyly, an observation thus far reported uniquely in taiwan. Also, her elder sister had the same condition. Renal pathology on light microscopy showed cystic dilatation of the renal tubules. Electron microscopy showed an irregular glomerular basement membrane and effacement of foot processes. This observation suggests that malformation of the glomerular basement membrane may cause the glomerulopathy in Galloway-Mowat syndrome.
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7/61. Familial incomplete virilization due to partial end organ insensitivity to androgens.

    A 16-yr-old 46 XY individual with a familial incomplete male pseudohermaphroditism closely resembling the syndrome described by Gilbert-Dreyfus et al. was studied. The patient's habitus was masculine despite the presence of a small phallus, pseudo-vaginal perineal hypospadias, bifid scrotum, gynecomastia, and diminished virilization. Blood samples obtained at 20-min intervals were submitted to hormone analysis. Episodic fluctuations of plasma gonadotropins with mean values of LH above the normal male range and FSH within normal limits were observed. Moderately elevated plasma testosterone and increased plasma estradiol also showed episodic oscillations. The administration of LH-releasing hormone resulted in a significative increase of plasma LH and FSH. Testicular biopsy revealed the presence of seminiferous tubules with few spermatogonia and no spermatocytes, and normal sertoli and interstitial cells. Gonadal stimulation with hCG for 4 consecutive days induced a significative increase of plasma testosterone and estradiol. The daily administration of 50 mg of testosterone propionate for 3 days neither depressed the circulating levels of gonadotropins nor modified the pulsatile pattern of gonadotropins release. Administration of testosterone and 5alpha-dihydrotestosterone propionate failed to diminish plasma LH and FSH levels. Testosterone administration for 10 weeks also failed to induce virilization. These results are similar to those observed in patients with testicular feminization syndrome, and the underlying abnormality involves a partial defect of the mechanism of action of testosterone rather than decreased androgen biosynthesis. According to a recently proposed classification this individual corresponds to the type 1 incomplete male pseudohermaphroditism.
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8/61. Severe hypomagnesaemia-induced hypocalcaemia in a patient with Gitelman's syndrome.

    Gitelman's syndrome (GS) is characterized by hyperreninaemic hyperaldosteronism, hypokalaemia, metabolic alkalosis, hypomagnesaemia and hypocalciuria and is due to a defect of the Na-Cl cotransporter at the distal tubule, which may appear in a sporadic or in a familial form. It is an autosomal recessive disorder associated with normal or reduced blood pressure. We report a case of severe hypomagnesaemia-induced hypocalcaemia in a 39-year-old Caucasian woman with GS. The patient had impaired parathormone (PTH) responsiveness to peripheral stimuli, as proved by the marked PTH increase and normalization of plasma calcium levels after acute and chronic administration of magnesium salts. Secondary normotensive hyperreninaemic hyperaldosteronism with hypokalaemia and metabolic alkalosis was also present. Normal plasma renin activity (PRA) and aldosterone levels were restored by administration of an inhibitor of prostaglandin synthesis. The electrolyte imbalance was successfully corrected with chronic treatment with magnesium and potassium salts. Genetic analysis identified a compound heterozygous mutation in the Na-Cl cotransporter gene (NCCT), confirming the diagnosis of GS. The striking feature of this case of GS was impaired PTH responsiveness to peripheral stimuli determined by hypomagnesaemia and the resulting severe hypocalcaemia, which had not previously been described in this syndrome.
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9/61. Heterotopic nephrogenic rests in the colon and multiple congenital anomalies: possibly related association.

    Heterotopic renal tissue (HRT) in the wall of the colon is a very rare occurrence, with only five cases published. Our patient is only the second patient reported to have this abnormality in the absence of sirenomelia. We describe colonic HRT in a child, associated with multiple congenital anomalies. The congenital abnormalities were of the VACTERL type, accompanied by valvular cardiac anomalies that were clinically diagnosed as Shone syndrome. The HRT was not apparent clinically or grossly. Microscopically, multifocal islands of renal tissue consisting of glomeruli, cystically dilated tubules, and blastema were seen in all layers of the bowel, and simulated "cystic partially differentiated nephroblastoma." Our case provides further support to the belief that VACTERL association and sirenomelia represent related entities.
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10/61. The syndrome of renal tubular acidosis with nerve deafness.

    Two brothers with renal tubular acidosis and nerve deafness are described. Studies of the physiopathological characteristics of the renal acidification defect show that the defect is limited to the distal tubule. Renal tubular acidosis with nerve deafness is a distinct nosologic entity that is determined by an autosomal recessive trait.
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