Cases reported "Syringomyelia"

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1/81. Pediatric syringomyelia with chiari malformation: its clinical characteristics and surgical outcomes.

    BACKGROUND: Most reports regarding pediatric syringomyelia have focused not only on Chiari malformation, but also on spinal dysraphism. However, the clinical characteristics of syringomyelia with spinal dysraphism are quite different from those of syringomyelia due to Chiari Type I malformation. The objectives of this study were to identify clinical characteristics of pediatric syringomyelia and to determine whether surgery prevents or corrects the scoliosis associated with syringomyelia. methods: We reviewed the records of 16 pediatric patients with syringomyelia and Chiari Type I malformation. The patients' ages ranged from 3 to 15 years, with mean age of 9.8 years. None of the patients had spinal dysraphism. RESULTS: Nystagmus was observed in 2 of the 16 patients, motor weakness in 8 patients, sensory disturbance in 10 patients, and scoliosis in 13 patients. As the initial surgical procedure, foramen magnum decompression (FMD) was performed in seven patients and syringo-subarachnoid (S-S) shunting in nine patients. The motor function improved in 7 of the 8 affected patients, and the sensory disturbance improved in 9 of the 10 affected patients. The magnetic resonance images obtained after the surgery revealed marked decrease of the syrinx size in all patients. Of the 13 patients with scoliosis, 5 showed improvement, 5 stabilization, and 3 deterioration. CONCLUSIONS: Compared with adolescent and adult syringomyelia, pediatric syringomyelia shows a much lower incidence of sensory disturbance and pain, but quite a high incidence of scoliosis. Surgery is effective in improving or stabilizing scoliosis in these patients.
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2/81. The Chiari/hydrosyringomyelia complex presenting in adults with myelomeningocoele: an indication for early intervention.

    OBJECTIVE: To determine how adults with myelomeningocoele who develop the Chiari/hydrosyringomyelia complex present, and to determine if surgical intervention influences outcome in these patients. methods: A chart review of the 220 patients who attend a clinic for adults with spina bifida and hydrocephalus (CASBAH), and follow-up of the five cases with myelomeningocoele who had surgical intervention for associated symptomatic Chiari/hydrosyringomyelia complex. RESULTS: Bilateral upper limb weakness and wasting were the commonest presenting symptoms (four patients). Sensory disturbance (three patients) was also common, dysphagia (one) and ataxia (one) occurring less often. The median time to surgical intervention was 36 months. Two patients had a shunting procedure performed in isolation, two foramen magnum decompression in addition to a shunting procedure and one a foramen magnum decompression. Surgical intervention did not completely reverse problems attributed to the Chiari/hydrosyringomyelia complex in any of the cases. One patient died post-operatively. Of the four who survived one had some improvement in function post-operatively, two remained static and one had further mild deterioration. CONCLUSION: All adults with myelomeningocoele should be questioned about changes in upper limb function for early detection of Chiari/hydrosyringomyelia complex. Our results suggest that early intervention is needed if further deterioration is to be avoided, and to improve the chances of neurological and functional recovery.
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3/81. arnold-chiari malformation with syringomyelia in an elderly woman.

    PRESENTATION: A 76-year-old woman, complaining of leg pain and unsteady gait for 3 years, presented with a spastic paraparetic gait, severe spasticity and touch, thermal and pain sensory loss limited to arms, lower thorax and upper abdomen. brain and spinal cord magnetic resonance imaging showed a large loculated syrinx. Cerebellar tonsillar herniation into the foramen magnum was also seen (arnold-chiari malformation, type I). OUTCOME: The patient had successful cervico-spinal surgical decompression which resulted in marked reduction in hypertonia and weakness, normal gait and normal joint movement at 6 months. CONCLUSION: This unusual, late clinical presentation of a congenital disease underlines the importance of a comprehensive diagnostic work-up in the elderly patients with complex neurological signs.
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4/81. Syringobulbia caused by delayed postoperative tethering of the cervical spinal cord - delayed complication of foramen magnum decompression for Chiari malformation.

    Postoperative tethering of the high cervical spinal cord is a rare cause of neurological deterioration after foramen magnum decompression (FMD) with duraplasty for Chiari type I malformation. A review of the literature revealed that only 5 cases have been reported. This entity is not widely known to occur as a complication of the common surgical procedure for Chiari type I malformation. A 17-year-old boy experienced rapidly progressive neurological deterioration over a 3-month period. FMD and duraplasty with lyophilized cadaver dura had been performed 8 years previously. Follow-up MR images showed that the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) space dorsal to the cord was gradually disappearing and that syringobulbia had developed. Opening the dura mater of the posterior fossa revealed dense fibrous scarring, arachnoid thickening over the cervicomedullary area, and tethering the cord to the dura from the medulla to C2. The adhesions were dissected free, and the tethering was released. A syringosubarachnoid (SS) shunt was inserted and duraplasty was performed with an expended polytetrafluoroethylene sheet (Gore-Tex). Postoperative MR images demonstrated that the syringobulbia had completely collapsed and that a dorsal CSF space was present. Follow-up MR images provided significant information on the cervical spinal cord tethering after FMD with duraplasty for Chiari malformation. We encourage sharp surgical detethering and duraplasty with Gore-Tex to avoid retethering. Early recognition and treatment of this unusual but important complication are emphasized.
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5/81. Retrocerebellar arachnoid cyst with syringomyelia: a case report.

    association of syringomyelia with retrocerebellar arachnoid cysts is rare. A case of 14 year old female is being reported, who presented with hydrocephalus caused by a large midline retrocerebellar infravermal arachnoid cyst leading to obstruction of the outlet foramina of the fourth ventricle. There was associated syringomyelia. The pathogenesis of syringomyelia is discussed. The need to evaluate cervical spinal cord by taking T1 weighted sagittal sections in all the patients of large posterior fossa mass lesions causing obstruction to the outlet foramina of the fourth ventricle has been stressed, in order to detect associated syringomyelia.
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6/81. Resolution of tonsillar herniation and syringomyelia after supratentorial tumor resection: case report and review of the literature.

    OBJECTIVE AND IMPORTANCE: The pathophysiological features of syringomyelia are not yet entirely understood. We present a case of a supratentorial mass causing tonsillar herniation and syringomyelia. CLINICAL PRESENTATION: A 51-year-old woman underwent magnetic resonance imaging for evaluation of progressive headaches. A large parieto-occipital mass was revealed. Herniation of the cerebellar tonsils and a cervical syrinx were also noted. INTERVENTION: A craniotomy was performed without incident. After tumor resection, the tonsils ascended and the syrinx resolved in a 1-year period. CONCLUSION: This case highlights the importance of tonsillar herniation in the pathogenesis of syringomyelia. "Acquired" Chiari malformations and syringomyelia attributable to supratentorial masses may be treated by mass resection alone, without the need for foramen magnum decompression.
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7/81. Successful neuroendoscopic third ventriculostomy for hydrocephalus and syringomyelia associated with fourth ventricle outlet obstruction. Case report.

    The authors report the use of neuroendoscopic third ventriculostomy to treat successfully both hydrocephalus and syringomyelia associated with fourth ventricle outlet obstruction. A 27-year-old woman presented with dizziness, headache, and nausea. Magnetic resonance (MR) imaging demonstrated dilation of all ventricles, downward displacement of the third ventricular floor, obliteration of the retrocerebellar cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) space, funnellike enlargement of the entrance of the central canal in the fourth ventricle, and syringomyelia involving mainly the cervical spinal cord. Cine-MR imaging indicated patency of the aqueduct and an absent CSF flow signal in the area of the cistema magna, which indicated obstruction of the outlets of the fourth ventricle. Although results of radioisotope cisternography indicated failure of CSF absorption, neuroendoscopic third ventriculostomy completely resolved all symptoms as well as the ventricular and spinal cord abnormalities evident on MR images. Neuroendoscopic third ventriculostomy is an important option for treating hydrocephalus in patients with fourth ventricle outlet obstruction.
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8/81. Expansion of Chiari I-associated syringomyelia after posterior-fossa decompression.

    Chiari I malformation (CMI) is an abnormality that involves caudal herniation of the cerebellar tonsils into the foramen magnum. CMI has been shown to be closely associated with the development of syringomyelia (SM). OBJECTS: Several theories have emerged to explain the apparent correlation between the existence of CMI with subsequent development of SM. However, the exact mechanism of the evolution of SM is still subject to controversy. We report here the case of a 12-year-old girl admitted to hospital with headache, vomiting, ataxia, and moderate pyramidal signs. methods: Radiological evaluation revealed the presence of CMI, accompanied by a small SM. The patient underwent posterior fossa decompression and improved significantly. She was re-admitted 6 months later with clinical evidence of progressive spinal cord dysfunction. MR revealed gross expansion of the syrinx. CONCLUSIONS: This case raises questions regarding the pathophysiology of CMI and its association with SM. The case indicates the need for neurological and radiological follow-up for patients undergoing posterior fossa decompression due to CMI, even for those without an initial syrinx. This is the first report known to us of expansion of a syrinx following decompression of an associated CMI.
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9/81. Spontaneous resolution of Chiari I malformation and syringomyelia: case report and review of the literature.

    OBJECTIVE AND IMPORTANCE: Indications for surgery and the surgical technique of foramen magnum decompression for patients with Chiari I malformation and syringomyelia are controversial issues. This case report supports the view that observation may be adequate for patients without progressive symptoms or with mild clinical symptoms. CLINICAL PRESENTATION: A 37-year-old woman presented with a 3-month history of burning dysesthesias and hypesthesia in her right arm. A neurological examination revealed hypesthesia in the right trigeminal distribution. A magnetic resonance imaging scan revealed a Chiari I malformation with syringomyelia between C2 and T2. No hydrocephalus was observed. CLINICAL COURSE: Because the patient's symptoms regressed spontaneously, surgery was not performed. Thirty-two months after her initial examination, the patient was asymptomatic. A second magnetic resonance imaging scan was obtained, which demonstrated complete spontaneous resolution of the Chiari I malformation and syringomyelia. CONCLUSION: We attribute the regression of the patient's symptoms to spontaneous recanalization of cerebrospinal fluid pathways at the foramen magnum, which most likely was due to rupture of the arachnoid membranes that had obstructed cerebrospinal fluid flow.
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10/81. Orofacial pain as the sole manifestation of syringobulbia-syringomyelia associated with arnold-chiari malformation.

    This is a case report of a male patient who presented with orofacial pain for a year as the only manifestation of syringobulbia-syringomyelia associated with arnold-chiari malformation. This article places emphasis on the clinical presentation and possible differential diagnoses. The pain was continuous and affected the left side of the face. It was exacerbated by coughing and physical effort, possibly as a consequence of an increase in intracranial pressure. Paroxysmal pain crises developed over this background of continuous pain, compatible with neurogenic trigeminal pain of the left second branch, together with pain episodes similar to cluster headache on the same side. The symptoms were resolved following neurosurgical management with amplification of the foramen magnum.
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