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1/84. ARDS in a patient with homozygous beta-thalassemia due to yersiniosis.

    We report a case of yersinia enterocolitica sepsis syndrome and the acute respiratory distress syndrome in a chronically transfused adolescent with beta-thalassemia. This manifestation of serious Y. enterocolitica infection has not previously been reported. dyspnea, hypoxia, and fever were the principal features of the clinical presentation. The acute onset of respiratory symptoms occurred after appendectomy. Chest radiographs revealed frontal bilateral infiltrates and alveolar consolidation to three quadrants. Y. enterocolitica was identified from blood and intraoperative appendix cultures. Although there was no need for mechanical ventilation, a remarkable persistence of clinical and X-ray findings was noted. Therapy with high levels of oxygen, and intravenous amikacin and piperacillin/tazobactam led to a favorable outcome. ( info)

2/84. Severe systemic inflammatory response syndrome with shock and ARDS resulting from Still's disease: clinical response with high-dose pulse methylprednisolone therapy.

    adult-onset Still's disease, the adult variant of the systemic form of juvenile arthritis, is an uncommon systemic inflammatory disorder of unknown etiology characterized by high spiking fevers, neutrophilic leukocytosis, arthritis, and an evanescent rash. There is often a delay in reaching a firm diagnosis. Differential diagnoses include infection, malignancy, and various immunologic disorders. Increased ferritin levels are of particular value in establishing the diagnosis. Clinical response to high-dose corticosteroids may be dramatic. We report a case of a 29-year-old woman who had recently been investigated for fever of unknown origin, and who presented to our hospital with high fever and hypotension. Her condition rapidly deteriorated with the development of ARDS, disseminated intravascular coagulation, and shock. The patient had a markedly elevated serum ferritin concentration of 26,000 ng/mL. High-dose pulse methylprednisolone therapy resulted in a remarkable clinical improvement. Such a severe case of systemic inflammatory response syndrome, masquerading as septic shock, has not been reported previously. ( info)

3/84. nursing care of a patient with fever due to sepsis/SIRS.

    The pathophysiology of fever in sepsis/systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) is outlined. The three phases of fever are explored using a patient case study. The conclusion recommends further research is needed on the nursing management of critically ill patients with a fever. ( info)

4/84. Possible role of systemic inflammatory reaction in vascular access thrombosis.

    BACKGROUND: Vascular devices are an integral part of modern medicine. Catheter thrombosis is a frequent complication that interferes with their use. METHOD: We have observed a series of patients in whom vascular access thrombosis occurred in close temporal association with infectious or inflammatory processes. RESULTS: Laboratory and clinical evidence suggests that activation of the coagulation system may be triggered by certain infectious or inflammatory disorders. patients with vascular devices are prone to infections that could lead to a transient hypercoagulable state. CONCLUSIONS: We are proposing that infections or other inflammatory processes may be involved in some vascular access thrombotic events. On the basis of our observations, we believe further studies are warranted regarding a possible association between infections or inflammatory disorders and vascular devices thrombosis. If an association is proven to exist, patients with vascular devices and infectious or inflammatory processes may be candidates for short-term anticoagulation during acute episodes of infection or inflammation. ( info)

5/84. Multiple organ dysfunction syndrome induced by whole-body hyperthermia and polychemotherapy in a patient with disseminated leiomyosarcoma of the uterus.

    OBJECTIVE: Whole-body hyperthermia (WBH) in combination with chemotherapy is a relatively new promising treatment modality for patients with cancer. The objective of this report is to present the development of an acute systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) with multiple organ dysfunction syndrome (MODS) following WBH in combination with chemotherapy. Although WBH can also induce cytokine production, MODS has not been described before in association with WBH. DESIGN: Case report. The patient was treated with WBH (core temperature 41.8 degrees C using a radiant heat device (Aquatherm) ) in combination with polychemotherapy (ifosfamide, carboplatin and etoposide (ice) ) in the context of a clinical trial for metastatic sarcomas. SETTING: Department of medical oncology and intensive care unit of a university hospital. PATIENT: A 58-year-old Caucasian woman treated for disseminated leiomyosarcoma of the uterus, who developed SIRS with brain dysfunction, hypotension, respiratory failure and renal dysfunction following WBH/ice. INTERVENTIONS: She was successfully treated in the intensive care unit by mechanical ventilation, inotropics and antibiotics. MEASUREMENTS AND RESULTS: There was a remarkable recovery within 2 days: she regained full conciousness, could be extubated, inotropic support was stopped and creatinine levels returned to pre-treatment levels. All cultures remained sterile. After almost complete recovery, 5 days later a second episode of fever during neutropenia occurred and, despite antibiotic treatment, she died of bacteroides distasonis sepsis. CONCLUSION: WBH should be added as a new cause to the already known list of physical-chemical insults which can result in MODS. ( info)

6/84. Toxic-shock-like-syndrome due to streptococcus pneumoniae sinusitis.

    We describe a patient with streptococcus pneumoniae sinusitis associated with a severe sepsis syndrome and desquamative rash whose clinical illness strongly resembled toxic-shock syndrome. Assay of convalescent serum for antibodies to toxic-shock syndrome toxin 1 was negative. This case suggests the possibility of an additional bacterial pathogen associated with toxic-shock syndrome. ( info)

7/84. systemic inflammatory response syndrome and acute renal failure associated with Hemophilus influenzae septic meningitis.

    sepsis is often associated with a downward spiral through a spectrum of systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) culminating in organ failure and death. Here we present a 3-year-old girl with Hemophilus influenzae septic meningitis who developed SIRS and acute renal failure. In the initial stage, the patient showed uremia, cytopenia, disseminated intravascular coagulation, elevation of tissue enzyme and ferritin values, hemophagocytosis and overproduction of nitric oxide. The serum cytokine profile revealed increased levels of soluble interleukin (IL)-2 receptor, IL-6, IL-10 and tumor necrosis factor alpha. The patient responded positively to early and intensive interventions including antibiotics, repeated exchange transfusions, dexamethasone and high-dose gamma-globulin. The above laboratory abnormalities almost normalized with clinical improvement. We consider that SIRS was probably responsible for the sequence of events resulting in renal failure in this case, and suggest that renal failure should be included among the serious complications of SIRS associated with Hemophilus influenzae septic meningitis. ( info)

8/84. Early enteral feeding of patients with multiple trauma.

    The case study illustrates the recovery of a patient with multiple trauma who was fed a peptide-based formula via the enteral route soon after the trauma. Although the clinical course might have been worse if D.H. had not received this treatment, his generally excellent recovery might be partly attributable to this therapy. Although stress hypermetabolism occurs in most patients with multiple trauma within 48 hours after injury, no known treatment can arrest or reverse this problem. However, the lethal catabolic and septic effects of stress hypermetabolism can be at least partly thwarted through delivery of enteral nutrients within 72 hours after trauma. ( info)

9/84. A severe, late reaction to radiological contrast media mimicking a sepsis syndrome.

    An unusual, severe delayed reaction to non-ionic intravenous contrast media was observed. A 44-year-old man underwent a computed tomography scan with non-ionic contrast media. Four hours later the patient collapsed with hypotension and cardiovascular shock. Aggressive management (including inotropic support and fluid resuscitation) was instituted in the intensive care unit. Rigorous imaging and biochemical and microbiological investigation failed to identify a source of this man's circulatory collapse. A rapid recovery ensued and at 3 months follow-up the patient was suffering no residual effects from this event. To our knowledge, this is only the second report of a severe delayed reaction to radiological contrast media and the first that manifested as a prolonged hypotensive syndrome. ( info)

10/84. Echovirus 7 infection and necrotizing enterocolitis-like symptoms in a premature infant.

    Echovirus type 7 has been previously recognized as a virulent serotype in the premature neonate. However, reports of fatal disseminated infections have often been perinatally acquired from symptomatic mothers at the time of delivery. Nosocomial outbreaks in full-term and premature infants have been reported from newborn intensive care units; however, deaths attributed to Echovirus 7 in convalescing prematures are rare in the literature. We report the case of a growing premature neonate presenting with an overwhelming sepsis-like syndrome, including symptoms consistent with necrotizing enterocolitis. Despite intensive supportive care including ventilatory support, cardiovascular pharmacotherapy, and blood product administration, the infant succumbed to overwhelming Echovirus 7 infection. ( info)
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