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1/12. Basket catheter localization of the origin of atrial tachycardia with atypical morphology after atrial flutter ablation.

    Atrial activation from a site in the low lateral right atrium will typically proceed in a superior direction. We present a case of a low lateral right atrial tachycardia with a surface electrocardiographic P wave morphology that appeared to have an inferiorly directed axis. The tachycardia occurred 2 years after successful atrial flutter ablation. The use of a multipolar basket catheter allowed confirmation of the focal origin of the tachycardia, permitted its rapid localization, facilitated catheter ablation, and provided clues to atrial activation that helped describe the appearance of the P wave.
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2/12. A typical P-wave morphology in incessant atrial tachycardia originating from the right upper pulmonary vein.

    Automatic atrial tachycardias often originate from the ostia of the pulmonary veins. P-wave morphology during tachycardia may indicate from which pulmonary vein the tachycardia originates. Two patients with pulmonary vein tachycardias demonstrating atypical P-wave morphology were investigated. One of the patients had a tachycardia with two different cycle lengths. P-wave morphology was evaluated in 12-lead ECGs from two patients with incessant atrial tachycardia, during tachycardia and sinus rhythm. Their tachycardias were successfully ablated at the mouth of the right upper pulmonary vein. Previous studies have demonstrated a positive or negative P-wave configuration in lead aVL originating from this area and a change from a biphasic P-wave in V1 during sinus rhythm to a positive P-wave configuration during tachycardia. Neither of our two patients had such a change in lead V1. One our patients had two tachycardias with different cycle lengths originating from the same area. It is concluded that if an atrial tachycardia with P-wave morphology resembling that of sinus rhythm cannot be located to the right atrium, its origin may be the right upper pulmonary vein.
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3/12. A peculiar form of focal atrial tachycardia mimicking atypical atrial flutter.

    A 55-year-old man was referred because of congestive heart failure and atrial flutter. A 12-lead electrocardiogram (ECG) showed positive P waves in leads II, III, and aVF with a continuously undulating pattern that lacked an isoelectric baseline. tachycardia was diagnosed as atypical atrial flutter based on classical criteria. An electrophysiological study and catheter ablation using an electroanatomical system revealed the mechanism of the tachycardia to be focal atrial tachycardia originating from the left atrial roof. This case indicates that focal atrial tachycardia may present as atypical atrial flutter on the surface ECG.
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4/12. Ablation of atrial tachycardia originating from the vicinity of the atrioventricular node: significance of mapping both sides of the interatrial septum.

    OBJECTIVES: The purpose of the study was to examine the value of right- and left-sided mapping to identify the site of tachycardia origin. BACKGROUND: Focal atrial tachycardia may originate from the vicinity of the atrioventricular node from either side of the interatrial septum. methods: In 16 patients undergoing radiofrequency catheter ablation of perinodal atrial tachycardia, activation mapping of the right and left side of the interatrial septum was performed. RESULTS: Atrial tachycardia originated from the right side of the interatrial septum in 10 patients (group A) and from the left side in 6 patients (group B). On the right side, earliest atrial activity preceded the onset of the P-wave by 49 /- 15 ms in group A and by 38 /- 8 ms in group B (NS), and it preceded the signal recorded from the right atrial appendage by 59 /- 19 ms in group A and by 60 /- 13 ms in group B (NS). On the left side, earliest activity preceded the onset of the P-wave by 27 /- 16 ms in group A and by 51 /- 6 ms in group B (<0.01), and it preceded the signal obtained from the right atrial appendage by 38 /- 19 ms in group A and by 73 /- 9 ms in group B (<0.01). Atrial tachycardias were successfully eliminated in all patients without impairment of atrioventricular conduction. During follow-up, two patients had a recurrence of tachycardia. CONCLUSIONS: Mapping of only the right side cannot exclude a left-sided origin. Therefore, mapping of both sides of the interatrial septum is required prior to ablation of focal atrial tachycardia originating from the vicinity of the atrioventricular node.
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5/12. The clinical course of multifocal atrial tachycardia in infants and children.

    OBJECTIVES: This study outlines the clinical course, treatment and the late outcome of infants and children with multifocal atrial tachycardia (MAT). BACKGROUND: Multifocal atrial tachycardia is defined by three distinct P-waveforms, irregular P-P intervals, isoelectric baseline between P-waves and rapid rate on an electrocardiogram. Several smaller prior reports have described pediatric patients with MAT, but their long-term outcome has not been fully assessed. methods: The clinical records, echocardiograms and long-term follow-up of patients with MAT were reviewed and compared to previous reports of MAT. RESULTS: Fourteen boys and seven girls (median age 1.8 months) presented with MAT. At diagnosis, six patients had respiratory illness, of whom two were critical. Ten were asymptomatic. Seven patients had structural heart disease (SHD), one of whom died. Four of 15 patients (27%) with echocardiograms had diminished ventricular function. Ventricular rates were 111 to 253 beats/min (mean 181 beats/min). Median duration of the arrhythmia was 4.9 months (mean 6.7 months). Electrical cardioversion was attempted in 4 patients without success and 15 patients received antiarrhythmic medication. Seventeen patients were followed for a mean of 60 months. Four patients were lost to follow-up. There were no late arrhythmias. CONCLUSIONS: The majority of children with MAT are healthy infants under one year of age; a few may exhibit mild to life-threatening cardiorespiratory disease. Less often, MAT accompanies SHD. Mild ventricular dysfunction may be observed in the presence of MAT, but symptoms are few and resolution is generally complete. Response to antiarrhythmic agents is mixed, and cardioversion is of no avail. Finally, long-term cardiovascular and developmental outcome depends principally on underlying condition; for otherwise healthy children, it is excellent.
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6/12. Bystander cavo-tricuspid isthmus activation during post-incisional intra-atrial reentrant tachycardia.

    We describe a case of post-incisional atrial tachycardia resembling typical atrial flutter on the surface ECG. Typical atrial flutter reentry was ruled out by the results of activation and entrainment mapping. Nevertheless, overdrive pacing from the lateral edge of the cavo-tricuspid isthmus produced tachycardia entrainment with concealed fusion associated with post-pacing and stimulus-to-P wave onset intervals exactly matching the tachycardia cycle length duration and the electrogram-to-P wave onset interval, respectively. Therefore, that site was firstly severed by sequential radiofrequency pulses. However, a transformation of the tachycardia P wave morphology and endocardial activation sequence, not associated with tachycardia termination or cycle length modification occurred. After additional mapping manoeuvres, a relatively small reentrant circuit was identified in the low and mid aspect of the lateral right atrium with the critical isthmus located between the lower border of a cannulation atriotomy and the crista terminalis, close to the inferior vena cava orifice. A single radiofrequency pulse at that site terminated the tachycardia. Both the electrocardiographic pattern and the endocardial mapping data obtained in our case might be explained by a split of the reentrant wavefront into a secondary wavelet which freely propagated through the cavo-tricuspid isthmus without completing the peritricuspid loop. In conclusion, bystander cavo-tricuspid isthmus activation during atrial tachycardia may simulate a typical atrial flutter pattern on the surface ECG. Further studies should evaluate the prevalence of this propagation pattern in post-incisional atrial reentry and atypical atrial flutters, and identify its implications for ablation strategy.
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7/12. Reentrant atrial tachycardia originating from the superior vena cava.

    A 52-years old man with a previous pericardiotomy for idiopathic constrictive pericarditis underwent catheter ablation for drug-resistant atrial tachycardia (AT). The mechanism of the AT was considered as reentry because of resetting response and the entrainment phenomenon during AT. We introduced a 64-electrode basket catheter into the superior vena cava (SVC) during AT to obtain precise mapping. A fractionated potential preceding local atrial electrogram was recorded in the SVC. The earliest activation site of the potential was located at the anterior aspect of the SVC, 2 cm above the SVC-right atrium junction determined fluoroscopically. The fractionated potential at this site preceded the onset of the P wave by 115 msec. Radiofrequency catheter ablation at this site eliminated the tachycardia. At 6 months follow-up, the patient is free of AT. Reentrant AT involving the SVC is a candidate of RF ablation. Multielectrode basket catheter is useful for a detailed mapping of the SVC.
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8/12. Pace mapping for the localization of focal atrial tachycardia arising near the mitral annulus.

    Of the various therapeutic modalities available to treat ectopic atrial tachycardia, radiofrequency catheter ablation has shown excellent results. It is usually possible to localize the earliest site of endocardial activation by conventional or newer three-dimensional mapping techniques. We report a case of ectopic atrial tachycardia, wherein the tachycardia was being repeatedly interrupted by mechanical trauma. Finally, with the help of P wave pace mapping, the tachycardia was localized near the posterolateral part of the mitral annulus, and successfully ablated. This report demonstrates the utility of P wave pace mapping in ectopic atrial tachycardia.
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9/12. Atrial tachycardia originating from the upper left atrial septum: demonstration of transseptal interatrial conduction using the infolded atrial walls.

    We report a rare case of atrial tachycardia (AT) originating from the upper left atrial septum. Electroanatomic mapping of both atria demonstrated that the earliest atrial activation during AT occurred at the upper left atrial septum 26 msec before the onset of the P wave, followed by the mid-right atrial septum (10 msec before the onset of the P wave) and then the upper right atrial septum just adjacent to the left septal AT site (1 msec before the onset of the P wave), indicating detour pathway conduction from the upper left to the upper right atrium. Embryologically, it was suggested that the superior components of the secondary atrial septum are made by the infolded atrial walls and could develop a transseptal detour pathway involving the left-side atrial septal musculature, the superior rim of the oval fossa and the right-side atrial septal musculature. A single radiofrequency application targeting the upper left atrial septum successfully abolished the AT.
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10/12. time course of improvement in ventricular function after ablation of incessant automatic atrial tachycardia.

    A patient with dilated cardiomyopathy and supraventricular tachycardia presumed to be of sinus origin was referred for cardiac transplantation. The extreme rate of the tachycardia during exercise, profound fluctuations in heart rate, and the presence of an abnormal P wave axis suggested the diagnosis of incessant ectopic atrial tachycardia rather than compensatory sinus tachycardia. Electrophysiologic study with endocardial activation sequence mapping confirmed the diagnosis of an ectopic left atrial automatic tachycardia, after which surgical cryoablation of the left atrial focus was carried out successfully and sinus rhythm was restored. Serial radionuclide angiocardiograms obtained before and after surgery demonstrated a very rapid recovery of left ventricular function to nearly normal within the first month after surgery, followed by further improvement to normal over the next several months. The diagnosis of tachycardia-related cardiomyopathy should be seriously considered in any patient with apparently end-stage dilated cardiomyopathy and persistent resting tachycardia.
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