Cases reported "Tachycardia, Sinus"

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1/76. Case study: missed diagnosis and mistreatment of unrecognized comorbid graves disease.

    Comorbid medical conditions are known to complicate the course and treatment of psychiatric disorders. This case study provides the first published report of graves disease exacerbating the symptoms of Tourette's disorder and attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). The lack of diagnosis of the graves disease compromised the efficacy of the treatment of Tourette's disorder and ADHD. This case study supports the need to the consider increased risk of a second immunoendocrinological disorder in the presence of diabetes mellitus type I, one of the several disorders that comprise the syndrome of polyglandular autoimmune endocrinopathy type II. ( info)

2/76. inflammation of the cardiac conduction system in a case of hyperthyroidism.

    A 37-year-old female showed signs of hyperthyroidism 2 weeks before death after a partial thyroidectomy was carried out 15 years previously. An examination 3 days before death revealed a normal blood cell count, an increased level of thyroidal hormones, sinus tachycardia and a high blood pressure of 170/90 mm Hg. A hyperthyroidism was diagnosed and therapy with carbimazol (2 x 10 mg) was started but 2 days later fever and chill occurred and before death short phases of unconsciousness and dyspnoea. The autopsy findings showed an interstitial inflammation of the AV-node, the His-bundle and its branches which can correlate with typical ECG changes in hyperthyroidism. ( info)

3/76. Laboratory confirmation of scopolamine co-intoxication in patients using tainted heroin.

    BACKGROUND: First described in 1995, at least 325 patients with a history of heroin use have since required emergency medical evaluation in several eastern US cities, because of an anticholinergic toxidrome following use of heroin. This co-intoxication has been alleged to result from an atropine-like compound. We report the clinical findings and laboratory analysis of one of several individuals who presented to our Emergency Department during this epidemic. CASE REPORT: A 23-year-old male was one of 3 patients brought to the Emergency Department due to agitated behavior after insufflating heroin. Following physical and chemical restraint, vital signs were pulse 134 bpm, BP 160/90 mm Hg, RR 24/min, and T 37.3 degrees C. physical examination was remarkable for dilated pupils 8-9 mm without nystagmus, along with dry mouth, decreased bowel sounds, and flushed dry skin. A bladder catheter was placed and 500 mL of urine was obtained. Electrocardiogram revealed sinus tachycardia only. Additional sedation was required for 12 hours until normal mental status returned. A small sample of the "heroin" used was obtained and analyzed. Scopolamine was confirmed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Further evidence of scopolamine intoxication was supported by identifying scopolamine in the urine of this patient. CONCLUSION: gas chromatography-mass spectrometry revealed scopolamine to be the cause of anticholinergic findings in a patient following use of tainted heroin. It is unclear whether scopolamine is an adulterant or contaminant in this heroin. patients with anticholinergic findings following use of heroin may be co-intoxicated with scopolamine. ( info)

4/76. Basket catheter localization of the origin of atrial tachycardia with atypical morphology after atrial flutter ablation.

    Atrial activation from a site in the low lateral right atrium will typically proceed in a superior direction. We present a case of a low lateral right atrial tachycardia with a surface electrocardiographic P wave morphology that appeared to have an inferiorly directed axis. The tachycardia occurred 2 years after successful atrial flutter ablation. The use of a multipolar basket catheter allowed confirmation of the focal origin of the tachycardia, permitted its rapid localization, facilitated catheter ablation, and provided clues to atrial activation that helped describe the appearance of the P wave. ( info)

5/76. baroreflex failure syndrome after bilateral excision of carotid body tumors: an underestimated problem.

    carotid body tumors (CBTs) are relatively rare paragangliomas that develop from neural crest cells at the bifurcation of the common carotid artery. They are generally slow growing and benign. Excision is currently considered the treatment of choice, although vascular and especially neural injuries are still relatively frequent in patients with large or bilaterally resected tumors. The baroreflex failure syndrome (BFS) has recently been identified as a severe, rarely recognized, and certainly underestimated complication after the bilateral excision of CBTs. The present report describes a case of a bilateral CBT followed by BFS and reviews the experiences reported in the literature. In light of the low incidence of malignancy of these tumors, their biologic behavior, their very high rate of cranial nerve palsy, and the occurrence of BFS in bilaterally resected paragangliomas, the current practice of bilaterally removing these tumors is questioned. ( info)

6/76. A depressed myocardium.

    BACKGROUND: Venlafaxine is a potent neuronal serotonin and noradrenaline re-uptake inhibitor, and to a lesser extent an inhibitor of dopamine reuptake. paroxetine is a potent selective inhibitor of serotonin reuptake. CASE REPORT: A 27-year-old man ingested 1987.5 mg of venlafaxine and 360 mg of paroxetine. He subsequently developed systolic and diastolic hypertension, transient electrocardiographic abnormalities, and an area of persistent myocardial damage. He recovered from his overdose with his blood pressure and electrocardiogram returning to normal. The area of myocardial damage was documented on echocardiogram as an area of marked hypokinesia at the basal anterior septum. Despite the absence of confirming blood levels or the absolute exclusion of cocaine, this case indicates that venlafaxine and paroxetine have the potential for serious cardiotoxicity when taken in overdose. ( info)

7/76. Electrophysiologic findings of a patient with inappropriate sinus tachycardia cured by selective radiofrequency catheter ablation.

    Radiofrequency catheter ablation (RFCA) for inappropriate sinus tachycardia (IST) is associated with a high recurrence rate and sometimes requires pacemaker implantation, especially after extensive ablation. We report a patient with drug-refractory IST who was successfully treated by selective RFCA to the 2 earliest activation sites. During tachycardia, the earliest atrial activation preceded the surface P wave by 50 ms or more, whereas it was only 27 ms for the rest of the right atrium after ablation. Our patient had the longest activation period during tachycardia among the reported patients. In IST patients, a longer activation time at the site of the earliest atrial activation may imply that the abnormality is confined to a small area within the sinus node and may predict the efficacy of selective RFCA. ( info)

8/76. Evidence of sinoatrial block as a curative mechanism in radiofrequency current ablation of inappropriate sinus tachycardia.

    Inappropriate sinus tachycardia is a nonparoxysmal tachycardia characterized by high resting heart rates and a disproportionate response to activity. Sinus node modification with radiofrequency current has been used successfully as treatment for this arrhythmia. However, the electrophysiologic mechanisms leading to successful modification are not yet fully elucidated. We report a case of a patient with drug-resistant inappropriate sinus tachycardia in whom successful treatment of the arrhythmia was achieved by documented sinoatrial exit block induced by radiofrequency current applications. ( info)

9/76. theophylline toxicokinetics in premature newborns.

    BACKGROUND: While cytochrome P4501A2 is the primary pathway for theophylline (aminophylline ethylenediamine) metabolism in adults, it is developmentally immature in the newborn. OBJECTIVE: To report the developmental differences in theophylline toxicokinetics of neonates. DESIGN: Case series. Three premature neonates received inadvertent intravenous overdoses of theophylline for apnea of prematurity while in newborn intensive care. Maximum serum concentrations ranged from 55 to 123 mg/L. theophylline-derived caffeine levels plateaued at 8.4 to 13 mg/L and did not decline during the sampling period. All newborns experienced sinus tachycardia and agitation. Sequential theophylline and caffeine serum levels were obtained periodically for 62 to 100 hours. In contrast to older children and adults, in whom theophylline disposition follows zero-order kinetics at high concentrations, a monoexponential function best described theophylline elimination in the premature newborn, with half-lives ranging from 24.7 to 36.5 hours and estimated clearance from 0.02 to 0.05 L/kg per hour. These values are consistent with those previously reported in neonates. All patients were treated with supportive care without invasive procedures. No seizures or apparent sequelae occurred. CONCLUSION: Developmental differences in the balance between nonrenal (ie, metabolic) and renal elimination pathways produce the unique toxicokinetics of theophylline in the neonate. ( info)

10/76. A case of thyrotoxicosis with pancytopenia.

    We report a 49-year-old man with primary hyperthyroidism who presented with pancytopenia. The patient presented with leg edema, sinus tachycardia, cardiomegaly, and pleural effusions, all from congestive heart failure. Laboratory data showed pancytopenia and primary hyperthyroidism; echocardiogram showed diffuse hyperkinesis of the left ventricular wall and right ventricular overloading. The bone marrow was moderately hypercellular and compatible with arrested hematopoiesis. pancytopenia and heart failure improved after administration of methimazole and diuretics. However, high levels of thyroid hormone recurred with pancytopenia 4 months after admission. Therefore, subtotal thyroidectomy was performed, and the levels of thyroid hormones and peripheral blood cell counts have remained normal. pancytopenia may be caused by hyperthyroidism. ( info)
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