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1/107. Radiofrequency ablation of a concealed nodoventricular Mahaim fiber guided by a discrete potential.

    INTRODUCTION: We present the case of a 17-year-old woman who underwent an electrophysiological study and radiofrequency (RF) ablation of supraventricular tachycardia refractory to medical treatment. Two right-sided, concealed, nondecremental atrioventricular accessory pathways (AV-APs) involved in orthodromic circus movement tachycardias were identified. After RF ablation of both AV-APs, evidence of bidirectional dual AV nodal conduction was demonstrated and regular narrow complex tachycardia was induced. methods AND RESULTS: During the tachycardia, retrograde slow and fast AV nodal pathway conduction with second-degree ventriculoatrial (VA) block and VA dissociation were observed. During the tachycardia with second-degree VA block, ventricular extrastimuli elicited during His-bundle refractoriness advanced the next His potential or terminated the tachycardia. Mapping the right atrial mid-septal region, a distinct high-frequency activation P potential was recorded in a discrete area, two thirds of the way from the His bundle toward the os of the coronary sinus. Detailed electrophysiologic testing with the recordable P potential demonstrated that the tachycardia utilized a concealed nodoventricular AP arising from the proximal slow AV nodal pathway. CONCLUSION: The tachycardia with slow 1:1 VA conduction could be reset by ventricular extrastimuli elicited during His-bundle refractoriness advancing the subsequent activation P potential and atrial activation. RF ablation guided by recording of the activation P potential resulted in elimination of both the slow AV nodal pathway and the nodoventricular connection with preservation of the normal AV conduction system.
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2/107. Radiofrequency catheter ablation in a haemodynamically compromised premature neonate with hydrops fetalis.

    A preterm infant was born at 35 weeks gestation after failed antenatal antiarrhythmic therapy. The infant had an incessant supraventricular tachycardia, impaired ventricular function and hypotension and failed to respond to adenosine, cardioversion and intravenous amiodarone. After resuscitation from cardiovascular collapse, a successful radiofrequency catheter ablation (RFA) of a left free wall atrioventricular pathway was performed at 24 h of age without extracorporeal support. The infant is normal on follow up at 12 months of age. Whilst most fetal and neonatal supraventricular tachyarrhythmias respond to antiarrhythmic medications and RFA is not required, this is the earliest RFA to be performed on a premature infant when antiarrhythmics have failed.
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3/107. Radiofrequency ablation of an accessory pathway years after heart transplant: a case report.

    A patient who had an orthotopic heart transplantation performed 9 years previously presented with a history of tachycardia lasting for three hours. He had only 1 previous episode of sustained tachycardia 4 years previously. Electrophysiological study showed a left antero-lateral accessory pathway which was successfully ablated using radiofrequency energy. This report indicates that some pathways may remain dormant for a long time after heart transplantation.
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4/107. association between nonreentrant supraventricular tachycardia and atrioventricular node reentrant tachycardia: a presentation of dual AV node physiology.

    Persistent simultaneous conduction of P waves over a fast and a slow nodal pathway defines the nonreentrant type of supraventricular tachycardia, usually not associated with reciprocating movements. We report a unique association between this uncommon tachycardia and a usual AV nodal reentrant tachycardia, made possible by the existence of three different nodal pathways.
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5/107. Concomitant reentrant tachycardias from concealed accessory atrioventricular bypass tract and atrioventricular nodal reentry in a patient with williams syndrome.

    williams syndrome is characterized by a constellation of features including mental retardation and supravalvular aortic stenosis. Other cardiovascular abnormalities including arrhythmias contributing to sudden death have been described in these patients. In this report we describe a case of a 49-year-old female with williams syndrome who presented with severe symptomatic supraventricular tachycardia. cardiac electrophysiology study identified a left posteroseptal concealed accessory bypass tract responsible for atrioventricular reentrant tachycardia and a concomitant typical atrioventricular nodal tachycardia. Such unusual association of combination of two different types of supraventricular tachycardia and williams syndrome has not been previously reported. Radiofrequency ablation was successfully performed to cure these arrhythmias.
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6/107. Paroxysmal supraventricular tachycardia caused by 1:2 atrioventricular conduction in the presence of dual atrioventricular nodal pathways.

    One-to-two atrioventricular conduction, ie, the double response to a single sinus or atrial impulse, resulting in two QRS complexes for one P wave, is a rare manifestation of dual atrioventricular (AV) nodal pathways. This report describes the case of a 61-year-old woman with continuous episodes of supraventricular tachycardia caused by independent conduction to the ventricles of sinus impulses over both the fast and the slow AV nodal pathway, giving rise to a ventricular rate that was twice the sinus rate. A wide spectrum of electrocardiographic manifestations of 1:2 AV conduction was observed on the surface electrocardiogram. The diagnosis was suggested by several elements including evidence of dual AV nodal pathways during sinus rhythm and cycle length alternans during tachycardia. The patient underwent successful slow pathway ablation with complete disappearance of symptoms and electrocardiographic manifestations of 1:2 AV conduction.
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7/107. Electrophysiologic characteristics and radiofrequency ablation of concealed nodofascicular and left anterograde atriofascicular pathways.

    INTRODUCTION: True nodoventricular or nodofascicular pathways and left-sided anterograde decremental accessory pathways (APs) are considered rare findings. methods AND RESULTS: Two unusual patients with paroxysmal supraventricular tachycardia were referred for radiofrequency (RF) ablation. Both patients had evidence of dual AV nodal conduction. In case 1, programmed atrial and ventricular stimulation induced regular tachycardia with a narrow QRS complex or episodes of right and left bundle branch block not altering the tachycardia cycle length and long concentric ventriculoatrial (VA) conduction. Ventricular extrastimuli elicited during His-bundle refractoriness resulted in tachycardia termination. During the tachycardia, both the ventricles and the distal right bundle were not part of the reentrant circuit. These findings were consistent with a concealed nodofascicular pathway. RF ablation in the right atrial mid-septal region with the earliest atrial activation preceded by a possible AP potential resulted in tachycardia termination and elimination of VA conduction. In case 2, antidromic reciprocating tachycardia of a right bundle branch block pattern was considered to involve an anterograde left posteroseptal atriofascicular pathway. For this pathway, decremental conduction properties as typically observed for right atriofascicular pathways could be demonstrated. During atrial stimulation and tachycardia, a discrete AP potential was recorded at the atrial and ventricular insertion sites and along the AP. Mechanical conduction block of the AP was reproducibly induced at the annular level and at the distal insertion site. Successful RF ablation was performed at the mitral annulus. CONCLUSION: This report describes two unusual cases consistent with concealed nodofascicular and left anterograde atriofascicular pathways, which were ablated successfully without impairing normal AV conduction system.
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8/107. Radiofrequency catheter ablation of a concealed atrioventricular accessory pathway associated with a coronary sinus diverticulum.

    A 31-year-old woman underwent radiofrequency catheter ablation of a concealed left posteroseptal accessory pathway associated with a coronary sinus diverticulum. The patient had previously undergone unsuccessful catheter ablation of the posteroseptal region of the mitral annulus. coronary sinus venography revealed the presence of the diverticulum near the ostium. An electrogram in the neck of the diverticulum showed the shortest ventriculoatrial conduction time and a large accessory pathway potential during atrioventricular reciprocating tachycardia. The pathway was successfully ablated within the neck of the diverticulum. The findings in this case underscore the importance of coronary sinus venography before ablation.
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9/107. Reversible cardiomyopathy after radiofrequency ablation of lateral free-wall pathway-mediated incessant supraventricular tachycardia.

    Incessant supraventricular tachycardia leading to reversible cardiomyopathy has been reported. Cardiomyopathy usually only develops after prolonged episodes of tachycardia at a significant heart rate. Left ventricular free-wall pathways rarely cause fast and incessant tachycardia. Therefore cardiomyopathy has not been reported with left ventricular free-wall pathway-mediated supraventricular tachycardia. We report on two cases of left ventricular free-wall-mediated supraventricular tachycardia leading to reversible cardiomyopathy after radiofrequency ablation. These cases illustrate the difficulty in diagnosing tachycardia-mediated cardiomyopathy, as the tachycardia may be clinically silent. In addition, they emphasize the importance of making this diagnosis, as the cardiomyopathy is reversible.
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10/107. Radiofrequency ablation of a right atrial appendage-ventricular accessory pathway by transcutaneous epicardial instrumentation.

    Epicardial location of accessory AV pathways may be responsible for the failure of conventional endocardial radiofrequency catheter ablation. Transcutaneous epicardial instrumentation provides access to the normal pericardium with no need for invasive thoracotomy or thoracoscopy. We report the case of successful epicardial mapping and ablation of a right atrial appendage-ventricular connection using a percutaneous epicardial approach, after repeated failure of endocardial ablation attempts.
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