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1/19. Dental findings in three siblings with Morquio's syndrome.

    Three siblings with Morquo's syndrome are described. Cultured fibroblasts from the youngest sibling demonstrated a total absence of N-acethylgalactosamine-6-sulphate-sulphatase whereas beta-galactocidase activity was normal, thus verifying the diagnosis of MPS-IV A. Dental features such as pointed cusps, spade-shaped incisors, thin enamel and pitted buccal surfaces were observed in all three children. Furthermore, in all three siblings the TMJ was affected with severe resorption of the head of the condyle. Histological examination of exfoliated primary molars showed a band of increased porosity following the striae of Retzius in the outer part of the enamel. These developmental disturbances were occasionally associated with minor localized defects in the enamel surface. The importance of close monitoring of dental development and regular dental care in order to prevent attrition of the teeth, loss of vertical face height and subsequent risk of TMJ dysfunction is emphasized.
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2/19. Vertical-split fracture of mandibular condyle and its sequelae.

    A case of vertical-split fracture of the right mandibular condyle and its sequelae is presented. The patient was a 16-year-old female being assessed for orthodontic treatment. Orthopantomograph and plain joint view radiographs showed a remodelled condyle which had suffered trauma 10 years previously. This type of fracture is unusual in nature but has not led to any secondary lack of growth, restriction of movement or facial asymmetry.
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3/19. Osteogenic distraction and orthognathic surgery to correct sequelae of ankylosis of the temporomandibular joint: a case report.

    A 17-year-old female patient presented with sequelae to ankylosis of the temporomandibular joint, which included vertical maxillary protrusion, anterior open bite, labial incompetence, micrognathia, undefined neck angle, facial asymmetry, Class II molar relationship, and Class III canine relationship. She presented with the following cephalometric and soft tissue data: SNA angle = 78 degrees, SNB angle = 70 degrees, incisor-nasion-point A = 11 degrees, incisor-nasion-point B = 33 degrees, Frankfort-mandibular plane angle = 43 degrees, occlusal plane = 25 degrees, subnasale-stomion = 20 mm, stomion superius-stomion inferius = 9 mm, stomion inferius-soft tissue menton = 30 mm, neck angle = 144 degrees, and chin projection = 10 mm. orthognathic surgery and mandibular osteogenic distraction were employed, specifically Le Fort I osteotomy to decrease a vertical excess of 12 mm, augmentation genioplasty of 17 mm, and bilateral extraoral distractors of bidirectional vector for a 14-mm augmentation of the mandible. The result was satisfactory with minimal adverse complications.
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4/19. Class III malocclusion with severe facial asymmetry, unilateral posterior crossbite, and temporomandibular disorders.

    A 22-year-old woman had a Class III malocclusion with severe facial asymmetry, unilateral posterior crossbite, and temporomandibular disorders. A clicking sound was noted in the temporomandibular joint on the posterior crossbite side during jaw opening, and she complained of pain in the masticatory muscles on both sides. The articular disc on the crossbite side was displaced anteriorly without reduction. The patient was treated orthodontically with edgewise appliances and surgically with LeFort I and intraoral vertical ramus osteotomies. The result of the combined surgical-orthodontic treatment was facial symmetry and optimal occlusion. The displaced articular disc moved into a normal position, and most of the temporomandibular disorder symptoms improved. At the 2.5-year follow-up, the temporomandibular joint conditions had been maintained.
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5/19. Preprosthetic therapy utilizing a temporary occlusal acrylic splint: a case report.

    This case report describes the complex occlusal rehabilitation of a patient with signs and symptoms of temporomandibular disorders with utilization of an occlusal acrylic splint as a means of initial treatment for neuromuscular reprogramming and repositioning of the condyle within the mandibular fossa for occlusal stability, thus allowing adaptation to a new occlusal vertical dimension.
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6/19. rehabilitation of partially edentulous patient with loss of vertical dimension.

    A case of rehabilitation of an edentulous patient with loss of vertical dimension is presented here. This patient presents with a Class III dental and skeletal malocclusion with an anterior cross-bite. The objective of this case report is to demonstrate that an accurate assessment of vertical dimension is necessary for good rehabilitation. The original vertical dimension was determined by a series of tests including, kinesiographic, electromyographic and transcutaneous electronic neural stimulation (TENS). Subsequently, the lost vertical dimension was re-established orthodontically. These examinations revealed a general hypertonicity of masticatory muscles due to the lost vertical dimension. Additionally, radiographs of the temporomandibular joint showed anteriorly displaced condyles. Following the completion of orthodontic treatment osseointegrated implants were placed to restore the dental arches.
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ranking = 9
keywords = vertical
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7/19. A European Board of orthodontics case report. Case category: severe skeletal discrepancy.

    OBJECTIVES: this 18.1 year-old girl presented with a chief complaint of progressive worsening of facial and dental esthetics, crowding, headache and facial pain. MATERIALS AND methods: clinically, she was at the end of her growth and exhibited a severe facial asymmetry, but with normal sagittal and vertical cranial relationships. Clicking in the right TMJ was evident. This was accompanied by a deviation upon opening, and pain in the joint. The pain she experienced during jaw movement, and upon palpation, was significant. There was a shift to the right from centric relation to intercuspal position. Intraorally, the tissues were normal, with mild tetracycline staining, still present primary canines, impacted third molars and upper permanent canines. Her first molars had fillings. Orthodontically, her occlusion was a severe Class III subdivision left, with a severe right-side crossbite, lower midline deviation to the right 6 mm, and a 1 mm lateral shift in intercuspal position. She also exhibited severe crowding and asymmetry in both arches. The sequence of her treatment was as follows: (a) extraction of primary canines and impacted third molars, surgical exposure of impacted canines, (b) lower occlusal splint for TMJ dysfunction and an upper arch fixed appliance for ideal alignment and leveling, (c) upper occlusal splint for the maintenance of TMJ function and lower arch fixed appliance for ideal alignment and leveling, (d) surgical skeletal correction, (e) post-surgical orthodontic finishing, (f) post-treatment retention.
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keywords = vertical
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8/19. Features and treatment of skeletal class III malocclusion with severe lateral mandibular shift and asymmetric vertical dimension.

    AIM: To highlight the effectiveness of orthodontic treatment and bilateral equalization of the vertical occlusal dimension, along with the correction of asymmetric cervical and masticatory muscle activities in patients with Class III malocclusion with lateral deviation of the mandible and severely asymmetric condyle and ramus. methods: Two normally growing and one nongrowing Japanese patients with severe lateral deviation of the mandible, asymmetric vertical occlusal dimension, and severely asymmetric temporomandibular joints are discussed. In addition to orthodontic treatment, all patients received physiotherapy of the cervical muscles and gum-chewing training for elimination of the masticatory muscular imbalance. patients also had postural training during treatment. All patients were treated with a bite plate to equalize the bilateral posterior vertical dimension, followed by full multi-bracketed treatment to establish a stable form of occlusion and to improve facial esthetics. RESULTS: This interdisciplinary treatment approach resulted in normalization of stomatognathic function, elimination of temporomandibular joint dysfunction symptoms, and improvement of facial appearance and posture. In growing patients, the significant response of the fossa, condyle, and ramus on the affected side during and after occlusal correction contributed to the improvement of cervical muscle activity. In contrast, less improvement was observed in the growing patient who did not receive physiotherapy of the neck muscles, postural training, or masticatory habit training during the posttreatment period. The nongrowing patient showed little morphologic improvement of the cervical spine, condyle, and fossa during treatment and after retention, even with physiotherapy of the neck muscles and attention to posture and masticatory habits. CONCLUSION: Based on these results, early occlusal improvement, combined with physiotherapy to achieve muscular balance of the neck and masticatory muscles, was found to be effective. It is important to assess the morphology and function of the neck muscles and cervical spine prior to occlusal therapy in patients with an asymmetric vertical dimension, lateral deviation of the mandible, and asymmetric temporomandibular joint structures. Therapy should correlate orthopedic and surgical patient management as needed.
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ranking = 8
keywords = vertical
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9/19. Nonsurgical and nonextraction treatment of a skeletal class III adult patient with severe prognathic mandible.

    AIM: A patient with a skeletal Class III malocclusion, prognathic mandible, anterior open bite, large tongue, and temporomandibular disorders is presented. Treatment objectives included establishing a stable occlusion with normal respiration, eliminating temporomandibular disorder symptoms, and improving facial esthetics through nonextraction and nonsurgical treatment by creating a favorable perioral environment, restoring the harmony to the tongue and perioral environment, improving masticatory muscle function, and creating adequate tongue space for establishment of normal respiration. SUBJECT AND methods: The patient was a Japanese adult male, who had previously been advised to have orthognathic surgery, with tongue-size reduction. An expansion plate was used to expand the maxillary dentoalveolar arch. Distalization of the mandibular arch was achieved by reduced excessive posterior vertical dimension, through uprighting and intruding the mandibular posterior teeth and rotating the mandible slightly counter-clockwise. The height of the maxillary alveolar process and the vertical height of symphysis were increased slightly. The functional occlusal plane was reconstructed by uprighting and intruding the posterior teeth with a full-bracket appliance, combined with a maxillary expansion plate, with short Class III and vertical elastics in the anterior area. myofunctional therapy involved sugarless chewing gum exercises. RESULTS: The excessive posterior vertical occlusal dimension was reduced slightly, creating a small clearance between the posterior maxilla and mandible. At the same time, the interferences in the posterior area were eliminated by the expansion of the maxillary dentoalveolar arch. As a result, the laterally displaced mandible moved to a more favorable jaw relationship, with distalization of the mandibular arch. The functional occlusal plane was reconstructed and an almost-normal overjet and overbite were created. Adequate tongue space for normal respiration was established during the early stage of treatment, by 7 months. A stable occlusion, with adequate posterior support and anterior guidance, was established and maintained at more than 4 years posttreatment.
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ranking = 4
keywords = vertical
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10/19. Bilateral vertical-oblique osteotomy of ramus (external approach) for treatment of a long-standing dislocation of the temporomandibular joint: A case report.

    A case of long-standing, bilateral dislocation of the temporomandibular joint characterized by anterior open bite, and an inability to close the mouth is reported. A number of conventional modalities were tried unsuccessfully to reduce the dislocated condyle. Subsequently, the patient was successfully treated with bilateral vertical-oblique osteotomy of ramus (external approach) without using internal fixation. This modality resulted in achieving occlusion and a good range of mandibular movement postoperatively.
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ranking = 5
keywords = vertical
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