Cases reported "Tenosynovitis"

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1/16. Tibialis anterior tenosynovitis: Avoiding extensor retinaculum damage during endoscopic debridement.

    Tibialis anterior tenosynovitis is a rare orthopaedic condition that usually resolves with conservative treatment. Surgery may be required for chronic cases and endoscopy seems to be a valid therapeutic alternative. During debridement of the hypertrophic synovium, care must be taken to avoid damaging the extensor retinaculum to prevent potential postoperative bowstring phenomenon of the tendon.
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2/16. Gouty involvement of flexor tendons.

    This article presents three patients suffering from complications related to tophi deposited within the hand and wrist synovium and flexor tendons. One patient had no previous history of gout or acute arthritis, with uricemia within normal values upon admission. The pathophysiology and treatment of gout in these special circumstances are discussed.
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3/16. Locking of the thumb in a patient with de Quervain's disease: a case report.

    We report a patient with a locked left thumb in association with de Quervain's disease. While bathing her baby 1 month after giving birth a 32-year-old woman suddenly noticed that she could not radially abduct her left thumb. magnetic resonance imaging showed thickening of the abductor pollicis longus tendon with a heterogeneous signal intensity on T2-weighted images. Bandage fixation for 4 weeks did not improve her thumb movement, and she was subsequently treated by surgery. Operative findings revealed inhibition of the tendon gliding proximally as a result of nodule formation in the abductor pollicis longus tendon distal to the first dorsal compartment. This condition, locking of the thumb, was improved by excising the extensor retinaculum of the first dorsal compartment and tenosynovium around the abductor pollicis longus and extensor pollicis brevis tendon. At the 1-year follow-up examination the patient had no limitations or pain during active radial abduction of the left thumb.
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4/16. Cuboid oedema due to peroneus longus tendinopathy: a report of four cases.

    OBJECTIVE: To highlight focal bone abnormality in the cuboid due to tendinopathy of the adjacent peroneus longus. DESIGN: A retrospective review was carried out of the relevant clinical and imaging features. patients: Two male and two female patients were studied, mean age 51.5 years (range 32-67 years), referred with foot pain and imaging showing an abnormal cuboid thought to represent either tumour or infection. RESULTS: A long history of foot pain was usual with a maximum of 8 years. Radiographs were normal in two cases and showed erosion in two, one of which exhibited periosteal new bone formation affecting the cuboid. Bone scintigraphy was undertaken in two patients, both of whom showed increased uptake of isotope. MRI, performed in all patients, showed oedema in the cuboid adjacent to the peroneus longus tendon. The tendon and/or paratendinous tissues were abnormal in all cases, but no tendon discontinuity was identified. One patient possessed an os peroneum. Unequivocal evidence of bone erosion was seen using MRI in three patients, but with greater clarity in two cases using CT. Additional findings of tenosynovitis of tibialis posterior, oedema in the adjacent medial malleolus and synovitis of multiple joints in the foot were seen in one patient. Imaging diagnosis was made in all cases avoiding bone biopsy, but surgical exploration of the peroneal tendons was performed in two cases and biopsy of ankle synovium in one. CONCLUSIONS: Oedema with erosion of the cuboid bone, simulating a bone lesion (cuboid "pseudotumour"), may be caused by adjacent tendinopathy of peroneus longus. It is vital to be aware of this entity to avoid unnecessary biopsy of the cuboid.
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5/16. Mycobacterium terrae tenosynovitis.

    Atypical mycobacteria causing extra-pulmonary disease in man are well documented. These infections are manifested by the presence of ulcers, abscesses and lymphadenitis. mycobacterium marinum is particularly noted for infections involving the synovium, tendon sheaths, bursae and bone. Of lesser note is Mycobacterium terrae (radish bacillus), a nonchromogen also associated with tenosynovitis. We are not aware of any previous report of the association of M. terrae with synovitis in australia. This case report describes a culture-proven case of tenosynovitis caused by M. terrae.
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6/16. Flexor tendon ruptures in rheumatoid arthritis.

    Flexor tendon ruptures in rheumatoid arthritis are caused by either attrition on bone spurs or by direct invasion of the tendon by hypertrophic tenosynovium. All attrition ruptures occur within the carpal canal and represent the most common cause of tendon rupture. Removal of the causative bone spur is imperative in the treatment of this condition. Ruptures due to invasive tenosynovitis also are frequently found within the carpal canal. These ruptures may be unanticipated, and may be discovered as an incidental finding during flexor tenosynovectomy. Ruptures due to invasive tenosynovitis within the digit carry an unfavorable prognosis. The prognosis for restoring flexion in the event of a flexor tendon rupture is determined by the location of the rupture, the etiology, the degree of articular involvement from the rheumatoid disease, and to a lesser extent, by the number of ruptured tendons. In general, isolated or double ruptures within the carpal canal due to attrition have a better prognosis than those caused by invasive tenosynovitis since the condition of the tendons is more favorable for reconstruction; however, as the number of ruptures increases, the prognosis in both conditions worsens. rupture of both tendons within the digital sheath is quite difficult to treat, with ruptures in zone 2 carrying the worst prognosis for the restoration of flexion. The severity of the patient's rheumatoid arthritis and articular disease has a great effect on the outcome of the reconstructive surgery. Prevention of tendon ruptures by early tenosynovectomy and the removal of bone spurs should be the goal of the surgeon.
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7/16. A Mycobacterium malmoense infection of the hand presenting as carpal tunnel syndrome.

    We report an atypical tuberculous infection by Mycobacterium Malmoense of the synovium of the flexor tendons at the wrist presenting as carpal tunnel syndrome. This is the first time this organism has been described in a site other than the lungs or the cervical lymph nodes.
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8/16. Tuberculous synovitis with "rice bodies" presenting as carpal tunnel syndrome.

    A 41-year-old man had typical symptoms and signs of carpal tunnel syndrome. At operation there were multiple large rice bodies along the flexor tendons with a great deal of adherent synovitis involving the index finger. Widespread surgical debridement with excision of involved synovium was done. mycobacterium tuberculosis was cultured from the tenosynovium excised.
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9/16. sporothrix schenckii tenosynovitis: a case report.

    sporothrix schenckii is a fungus known to cause infection of skin in the subcutaneous tissues. In this case tenosynovitis was caused by sporotrichosis resulting in rupture of the extensor tendon. Excision of the involved tenosynovium and repair of the tendons were done. Five months of oral medication with ketoconazole, 400 mg daily, led to resolution of the synovial disease and regression of a 1 cm pulmonary nodule found on a routine chest x ray film.
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10/16. Nodular pigmented villonodular tenosynovitis.

    Pigmented villonodular tenosynovitis is a proliferative disorder of the synovium that can involve the joints, tendon sheaths, and bursae. There are two histologically similar lesions of pigmented villonodular tenosynovitis--nodular pigmented villonodular tenosynovitis and diffuse pigmented villonodular tenosynovitis. The authors present a case involving nodular pigmented villonodular tenosynovitis, which is the more rare form of these two lesions.
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