Cases reported "tension-type headache"

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1/12. Uneventful upper cervical manipulation in the presence of a damaged vertebral artery.

    OBJECTIVE: To discuss a case in which a patient with a previously injured vertebral artery underwent manipulation in the upper cervical spine without alteration of her symptom pattern. The literature concerning the relative safety of specific upper cervical manipulative techniques is reviewed. CLINICAL FEATURES: A 42-year-old woman had a 3-week history of unilateral suboccipital pain that she related to a sudden twisting of her head and neck that occurred while she was putting sheets of drywall on top of her car. Subsequent examination by a neurologist 2 weeks later was unremarkable, and a tension-type headache was diagnosed. Approximately 10 days later (3 weeks after injury), a single high-velocity upper-cervical manipulation (incorporating slight rotation and full lateral flexion) was performed with no change in her symptom pattern. Two weeks after that, the patient had development of a lateral medullary syndrome (also known as Wallenberg syndrome) after she briefly extended and rotated her upper cervical spine while painting a ceiling. INTERVENTION AND OUTCOME: The patient was treated with anticoagulant therapy, and the lateral medullary infarct healed without incident. The spinocerebellar and subtle motor symptoms also resolved, but the ipsilateral suboccipital headache and the loss of temperature sensation associated with the spinothalamic tract lesion were still present 9 months later. CONCLUSION: This case report demonstrates that vigorous manipulation of the upper cervical spine is possible without injuring an already damaged vertebral artery. It is suggested that the line of drive used during the single manipulation, almost pure lateral flexion with slight rotation, was responsible for the apparent innocuous response. Guidelines for the evaluation and management of vertebral artery dissection are reviewed. Because it is currently impossible to identify patients at risk of having a dissected vertebral artery with standard in-office examination procedures, rotational manipulation of the upper cervical spine should be abandoned by all practitioners, and schools should remove such techniques from their curriculums. ( info)

2/12. Does chronic daily headache arise de novo in association with regular use of analgesics?

    BACKGROUND: The prevalence of chronic daily headache in association with regular use of analgesics is about 2%. Whether regular use of analgesics has a causal or consequential relationship to daily headache has not been established. A causal relationship has been suggested consequent to the observation of improvement or resolution of headache following analgesic withdrawal in patients attending headache clinics, but this observation has not been validated by controlled trials. PURPOSE: The aim of our investigation was to determine whether regular use of analgesics is associated with the development of chronic daily headache de novo and to characterize the clinical phenotype of those headaches by carefully studying chronic daily headache in patients with regular use of analgesics for a nonheadache indication. methods: patients attending a rheumatology-monitoring clinic of second-line agents were interviewed by a training neurologist with regard to their analgesic and headache history. Headache classification was according to the criteria of the International Headache Society. Daily headache characteristics were surveyed via a standardized questionnaire, and headache features were further explored by a trained medical interviewer. RESULTS: Of 110 patients presenting to a rheumatology-monitoring clinic, 73% had a diagnosis of rheumatoid arthritis, 23% had seronegative arthritis, and 4% comprised a miscellaneous group. One hundred three were using one or more analgesics regularly for their arthritis. Of this group, 8 (7.6%) reported a history of chronic daily headache, each of whom reported a history of migraine. The onset of migraine occurred before the onset of chronic daily headache in 7 patients and at about the same time as the chronic daily headache in 1 patient. In those with onset of migraine prior to chronic daily headache, the mean interval before the onset of headache was 30 years (range, 10 to 50 years). Regular use of analgesics preceded the onset of daily headache in 5 patients by a mean of 5.4 years (range, 2 to 10 years). In 1 patient, analgesic use and the development of daily headache occurred at about the same time. In 1 patient, the onset of daily headache preceded regular use of analgesics by almost 30 years. Five of those with regular use of analgesics had been taking an opiate-based preparation in combination with a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory agent in 4. Two had been on a combination of acetaminophen (paracetamol) and a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug. The minimum number of tablets per week was 7, and the mean was 48 (range, 7 to 87). Of those patients who did not have daily headache, 41% had a history of migraine and 27% reported a history of tension-type headache. CONCLUSION: These findings suggest that individuals with primary headache, specifically migraine, are predisposed to developing chronic daily headache in association with regular use of analgesics. ( info)

3/12. Frequent migraine and migraine status without tension-type headaches: an unusual presentation of rebound headaches.

    Rebound headaches usually present as daily or almost daily, prolonged, generalized tension-type headaches with superimposed migraine-like attacks. The latter are more frequent, more intense, and longer than any episodic migraine that the patient might have experienced prior to the development of the chronic daily headaches. Rebound presenting as migraine without tension-type pain has been mentioned in a few previous articles on chronic daily headache, but there have been no previous articles stressing that frequent migraine might relate to the analgesics that are being used. These case histories are presented to illustrate that frequent migraine and migraine status without tension-type headaches may be manifestations of rebound and improve when the offending analgesic agents are stopped. If the clinician fails to recognize this unusual presentation of rebound headache, the patient might be placed on unnecessary and often ineffective medications for prophylaxis instead of stopping the offending pain relief medications. ( info)

4/12. Regional head and face pain relief following lower cervical intramuscular anesthetic injection.

    BACKGROUND: Although cervical trigger point intramuscular injections are commonly used to relieve localized neck pain, regional head pain relief from lower cervical paravertebral injections has not been reported previously. PURPOSE: To evaluate the safety and efficacy of such injections in a selected group of patients with intractable head or face pain. methods: In a series of patients with chronic head or face pain, local anesthetic was injected into the lower cervical spine paravertebral musculature approximately 1 to 2 inches lateral to the seventh cervical spinous process. RESULTS: In addition to producing rapid relief of palpable scalp or facial tenderness (mechanical hyperalgesia and allodynia pain), this lower cervical intramuscular injection technique alleviated associated symptoms of nausea, photophobia, and phonophobia in patients with migrainous headache. CONCLUSION: Our results suggest that lower cervical intramuscular anesthetic injection may be an effective treatment for head or face pain. ( info)

5/12. Medication overuse headache.

    Medication overuse headache may complicate any type of headache and occurs in young people, adults, and even elderly patients.Overuse of acute medications may change intermittent or self-limited headaches into chronic daily headache. Migraineurs seem particularly prone to analgesic rebound headache/ transformed migraine/chronic migraine. Prophylactic therapies are often ineffective in the setting of medication overuse. Recognition of this condition allows appropriate clinical intervention that includes cessation of the offending medications. ( info)

6/12. The tension headache component of chronic daily headache.

    Chronic daily headache (CDH) is an overarching term that includes multiple types of frequent primary headaches that are not trigeminal-autonomic cephalgias. The components of typical CDH can be divided into a more severe or "big" headache and a less severe or "little" headache. The big headaches tend to have features of migraine while the little headaches have features of tension-type headache (TTH). Whether this represents a spectrum or continuum or whether it is the superimposition of two unique headache entities is open to debate. For subjects with big and little headache, the concept that the TTH component is part of a spectrum seems likely. Subjects with only TTH and no migrainous component seem to represent a different entity, pure chronic TTH. These patients have a daily moderate headache that is poorly responsive to current therapies and appears to be a different TTH than the migraine tension type of CDH. The TTH component of CDH may represent multiple subdivisions of TTH. ( info)

7/12. Serious neurological disorders in children with chronic headache.

    AIMS: To determine the prevalence of serious neurological disorders among children with chronic headache. methods: All children presenting to a specialist headache clinic over seven years with headache as their main complaint were assessed by clinical history, physical and neurological examination, neuroimaging where indicated, and by follow up using prospective headache diaries. RESULTS: A total of 815 children and adolescents (1.25-18.75 years of age, mean 10.8 years (SD 2.9); 432 male) were assessed. Mean duration of headache was 21.2 months (SD 21.2). neuroimaging (brain CT or MRI) was carried out on 142 (17.5%) children. The vast majority of patients had idiopathic headache (migraine, tension, or unclassified headaches). Fifty one children (6.3%) had other chronic neurological disorders that were unrelated to the headache. The headache in three children (0.37%, 95% CI 0.08% to 1.1%) was related to active intracranial pathology which was predictable on clinical findings in two children but was unexpected until a later stage in one child (0.12%, 95% CI 0.006% to 0.68%). CONCLUSIONS: Chronic headache in childhood is rarely due to serious intracranial pathology. Careful history and thorough clinical examination will identify most patients with serious underlying brain abnormalities. Change in headache symptomatology or personality change should lower the threshold for imaging. ( info)

8/12. tension-type headache as the unique pain experience of a patient with congenital insensitivity to pain.

    Congenital insensitivity to pain (CIP) is a rare clinical syndrome characterized by dramatic impairment of pain perception since birth and is generally caused by a hereditary sensory and autonomic neuropathy (HSAN) with loss of the small-calibre, nociceptive nerve fibres. We report the case of a 32-year-old woman with CIP and a presumptive diagnosis of HSAN type V, who experienced physical pain for the first and unique time in her life shortly after the sudden loss of her brother. This patient had sustained innumerable painless injuries during childhood, including bone fractures and severe burns. The only pain she ever felt consisted in an intense headache, which took place in a context of strong emotional overload and anxiety, 3 weeks after her younger brother died suddenly in a car accident. The description of this inaugural episode of headache fulfilled the diagnostic criteria of episodic tension-type headache. This case strongly suggests that the transcription of the grief of bereavement into physical pain may sometimes occur independently of the peripheral mechanisms of nociception and despite the lack of previous pain experience. In the light of recent experimental data showing that the same neural mechanisms that regulate physical pain may also control the expression of separation distress and the feeling of social exclusion, this unique case helps to better understand why some patients may feel physically hurt after the loss of someone they love. ( info)

9/12. Localized periorbital edema induced by ibuprofen.

    We documented localized periorbital edema in one patient with ibuprofen sensitivity without underlying chronic urticaria. The reaction developed one hour after ingestion of 200 mg of ibuprofen. No systemic symptoms were observed. No other NSAIDs did not induce symptoms. This patient was able to tolerate doses of ibuprofen after pretreatment with terfenadine. These observations suggest that histamine played a central role in this ibuprofen-induced skin reaction. Treatment with terfenadine enabled the patient to tolerate ibuprofen without experiencing any side effects. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first reported case of periorbital edema induced by ibuprofen. ( info)

10/12. Headache in patients with baroreflex failure.

    Two cases of baroreflex failure presented with tension-type/exertional headache. The usefulness of noninvasive physiological tests in diagnosing baroreflex failure and the role of baroreceptors in trigeminal nociception are discussed. ( info)
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