Cases reported "Thalamic Diseases"

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11/42. Allodynia in the flank after thalamic stroke.

    Lesions responsible for thalamic pain are often thought to involve the ventral posteromedial nucleus and ventral posterolateral nucleus of the thalamus. We describe two patients with allodynia and hyperpathia in the contralateral flank caused by a small lesion in the posteroventral part of the thalamus. When considered with the literature, involvement of the ventral posteroinferior nucleus may be responsible for this unique post-stroke pain syndrome.
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ranking = 1
keywords = nucleus
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12/42. Two cases of ischemia associated with subthalamic nucleus stimulator implantation for advanced Parkinson's disease.

    deep brain stimulation is generally a safe and effective method of alleviating motor impairment in advanced-stage Parkinson's disease patients. However, adverse events of surgery have been noted, such as hemorrhage, infection, seizures, and device failure. In this report, we describe 2 cases of the unusual adverse event of ischemia associated with subthalamic nucleus stimulator implantation. We present the intraoperative neurological symptoms, microelectrode recording data, imaging findings, and other correlated events. In the first case, the clinical effects of ischemia were evident intraoperatively and coincided with silence during microelectrode recording from the ischemic region. In the second case, the timing of the ischemic event could not be determined precisely but also was associated with a difficult mapping. Subcortical ischemia may be an underrecognized event that confounds neurophysiological mapping of deep brain structures and affects clinical outcomes.
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ranking = 35.820020207216
keywords = subthalamic nucleus, subthalamic, nucleus
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13/42. language disturbances from mesencephalo-thalamic infarcts. Identification of thalamic nuclei by CT-reconstructions.

    The authors report the cases of two patients with CT-documented paramedian mesencephalo-thalamic infarcts, showing language disturbances. The first patient showed a non fluent, transcortical motor-like aphasia, the other had a fluent but severely paraphasic language disorder. The CT study disclosed that it was the dorso-median thalamic nucleus that was mostly involved in both cases. These findings agree with a few previous pathological studies suggesting that the paramedian thalamic nuclei, particularly the dorso-median nucleus may play some role in language disturbances. However the anatomical basis for thalamic aphasia remains speculative, taking into account the importance of cortical connections in the origin of subcortical neuropsychological disturbances.
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ranking = 0.66666666666667
keywords = nucleus
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14/42. Contralateral disappearance of parkinsonian signs after subthalamic hematoma.

    A man with Parkinson's disease (PD) suddenly developed a left hemiballismus, and the CT showed a hematoma of the right subthalamic nucleus. After the ballistic movements had disappeared, akinesia and the other parkinsonian signs did not reappear on the left. This clinical case confirms the involvement of the subthalamic nucleus in the akinesia of PD, as suggested by recent experimental data.
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ranking = 24.638027528887
keywords = subthalamic nucleus, subthalamic, nucleus
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15/42. frontal lobe dysfunction following infarction of the left-sided medial thalamus.

    We treated a 62-year-old woman who developed a dramatic change in personality and behavior following a discrete left-sided medial thalamic infarction involving the dorsomedial nucleus. Neuropsychological testing demonstrated severe impairment of complex executive behaviors that are usually associated with frontal lobe function. electroencephalography and single-photon emission computed tomography strongly implicated dysfunction of the ipsilateral frontal lobe. This case further supports a functional and physiologic thalamofrontal linkage as part of a broader cerebral network modulating complex human behavior.
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ranking = 0.33333333333333
keywords = nucleus
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16/42. Focal dystonia secondary to cerebral toxoplasmosis in a patient with acquired immune deficiency syndrome.

    A variety of movement disorders have been reported in patients with acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) and cerebral toxoplasmosis. We describe a 29-year-old man with left arm and hand focal dystonia secondary to toxoplasma abscesses in the right lenticular nucleus and thalamus. Although a few cases of dystonia have been reported in AIDS, this patient represents the first reported case of focal dystonia secondary to toxoplasmosis.
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ranking = 0.33333333333333
keywords = nucleus
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17/42. aphonia due to paramedian thalamo-subthalamic infarction. Remarks on two cases.

    We describe two patients in whom CT brain scans imaged paramedian thalamo-subthalamic infarcts in the territory of the thalamo-mesencephalic arteries. Such infarcts give rise to a complex syndrome marked by disturbances of consciousness and of eye movement and neuropsychological disorders, including attentional, memory and, more rarely, language deficits. A loss of voice volume may accompany aphasic disturbances but is exceedingly rare in isolation. In the cases described the aphonia, total but transient, was the only language disorder. The physiopathological mechanisms involved in aphonia are complex and controversial.
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ranking = 12.8875243075
keywords = subthalamic
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18/42. Ataxic hemiparesis following thalamic infarction.

    We describe a 73-year-old man with ataxic hemiparesis following infarction of the ventrolateral nucleus of the thalamus demonstrated by computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging. cerebellar ataxia was most likely due to interruption of the dentatorubrothalamocortical fibers at the level of the injured ventrolateral nucleus. Hemiparesis was probably caused by local edema compressing the corticospinal tract in the adjacent posterior limb of the internal capsule. We believe this to be the first reported case of classic ataxic hemiparesis following thalamic infarction.
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ranking = 0.66666666666667
keywords = nucleus
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19/42. The syndrome of unilateral tuberothalamic artery territory infarction.

    The study of 3 personal cases and 5 published cases of unilateral infarct limited to the territory of the tuberothalamic artery suggests that this syndrome should be differentiated from the other thalamic syndromes. The onset is usually sudden, with moderate contralateral weakness. Sensory changes may be present but remain mild. The patients are apathetic, show perseveration and may be disoriented. In left-sided infarcts, transcortical aphasia, verbal and visual memory impairment and sometimes acalculia are found. In right-sided infarcts, hemispatial neglect, visual memory impairment and disturbed visuospatial processing are common. A decreased level of consciousness, disturbed ocular movements, severe motor weakness and delayed abnormal movements do not occur. Involvement of the ventral lateral and dorsomedial nucleus with sparing of the intralaminar nuclei, posterolateral formation and upper midbrain may explain this picture. The fact that the tuberothalamic artery arises from the posterior communicating artery, which often receives its supply from the carotid system, further justifies considering unilateral tuberothalamic infarcts as a syndrome.
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ranking = 0.33333333333333
keywords = nucleus
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20/42. Hemiballism in multiple sclerosis.

    Hemiballism has rarely been reported in the setting of multiple sclerosis. review of clinical descriptions cast some doubt on the accuracy of the diagnosis of the movement disorder in several previous cases. We report a patient with definite multiple sclerosis, with videotape documentation of hemiballism, and demonstration of a plaque in the contralateral subthalamic nucleus on a magnetic resonance image.
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ranking = 7.1640040414433
keywords = subthalamic nucleus, subthalamic, nucleus
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