Cases reported "Thrombasthenia"

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1/3. A novel homozygous splice junction mutation in GPIIb associated with alternative splicing, nonsense-mediated decay of GPIIb-mRNA, and type II Glanzmann's thrombasthenia.

    This work reports the study of a patient suffering a bleeding disorder clinically diagnosed as Glanzmann's thrombasthenia (GT). immunoblotting and flow cytometric analysis showed a low (mutation alters the consensus sequence of the splice donor site of intron 1 changing arginine 63 for lysine (R63K). No other mutation than [G188A]GPIIb was found in the proband and her parents after complete analysis of GPIIb and GPIIIa coding sequences, and the promoter, 3'-UTR, and intronic flanking regions of GPIIb. The GT phenotype of the proband is the result of a limited availability of GPIIb-mRNA. The etiopathogenic role of the [G188A]GPIIb mutation is supported by the following observations: (i) both parents, who are heterozygous for the [G188A]GPIIb mutation, show a marked decrease in the platelet content of GPIIb-mRNA; (ii) exontrap analysis demonstrated that the G188A mutation leads to a marked reduction in the steady-state level of GPIIb-mRNA. The reduced availability of platelet GPIIb-mRNA associated with the G188A mutation seems to be caused by either inefficient rna splicing or a preferred utilization of alternative intronic donor sites that generate an in-frame STOP codon with the result of activation of nonsense-mediated mRNA decay, or both.
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2/3. Type I Glanzmann thrombasthenia caused by an apparently silent beta3 mutation that results in aberrant splicing and reduced beta3 mRNA.

    We report a novel genetic defect in a patient with type I Glanzmann thrombasthenia. flow cytometry analysis revealed undetectable levels of platelet glycoproteins alphaIIb and beta3, although residual amounts of both proteins were detectable in immunoblotting analysis. sequence analysis of reversely transcribed platelet beta3 mRNA showed a 100-base pair deletion in the 3'-boundary of exon 11, that results in a frame shift and appearance of a premature STOP codon. Analysis of the corresponding genomic dna fragment revealed the presence of a homozygous C1815T transition in exon 11. The mutation does not change the amino acid residue but it creates an ectopic consensus splice donor site that is used preferentially, causing splicing out of part of exon 11. The parents of the proband, heterozygous for this mutation, were asymptomatic and had reduced platelet content of alphaIIbbeta3. PCR-based relative quantification of beta3 mRNA failed to detect the mutant transcript in the parents and showed a marked reduction in the patient. The results suggest that the thrombasthenic phenotype is, mainly, the result of the reduced availability of beta3-mRNA, most probably due to activation of the nonsense-mediated mRNA decay mechanism. They also show the convenience of analyzing both genomic dna and mRNA, in order to ascertain the functional consequences of single nucleotide substitutions.
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3/3. A novel homozygous mutation (1619delC) in GPIIb gene associated with Glanzmann thrombasthenia, the decay of GPIIb-mRNA and the synthesis of a truncated GPIIb unable to form complex with GPIIIa.

    The absence of agonist-induced platelet aggregation and the lack of fibrinogen receptor (GPIIb/IIIa) on the platelet surface demonstrated that the severe hemorrhagic complications of a child of Romany descent were caused by Glanzmann thrombasthenia. dna sequencing revealed a novel homozygous deletion of a cytosine (1619delC) in the GPIIb gene causing a frameshift and predicting a novel stop codon at position 533 following 24 altered amino acids. Both parents possessed the same deletion in heterozygous form. The amount of GPIIb mRNA in the patient's platelets was 0.06% of the amount measured in control platelets. Neither GPIIb nor its truncated form could be detected in the platelets of the patient by Western blotting, while a small amount of GPIIIa was demonstrated. Quantitative flowcytometric analysis showed an elevated number of vitronectin receptors, a component of which is GPIIIa, on the patient's platelets. The surface expression of vitronectin receptor on thrombasthenic, but not on normal platelets was further increased by activation with thrombin receptor agonist peptide. BHK cells transfected with wild type GPIIIa andmutated GPIIb failed to express any mature GPIIb or pro-GPIIb. immunoprecipitation with a polyclonal antibody recognizing both GPIIb and GPIIIa recovered a 60 kDa truncated form of GPIIb. This band was absent when immunoprecipitation was carried out with an antibody recognizing GPIIIa, suggesting that the truncated protein, lacking calf-1, calf-2 domains and major part of the thigh domain, is unable to form complex with GPIIIa.
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