Cases reported "Thrombasthenia"

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1/6. A point mutation in the cysteine-rich domain of glycoprotein (GP) IIIa results in the expression of a GPIIb-IIIa (alphaIIbbeta3) integrin receptor locked in a high-affinity state and a Glanzmann thrombasthenia-like phenotype.

    This article reports a Glanzmann thrombasthenia (GT) patient, N.M., with a point mutation in the third cysteine-rich repeat of beta3-integrin or platelet glycoprotein (GP) IIIa, leading to the expression of a constitutively activated fibrinogen receptor. The diagnosis of GT was based on a severely reduced platelet-aggregation response to a series of agonists and approximately 20% of surface-expressed GPIIb-IIIa. The patient's GPIIb-IIIa constitutively expressed epitopes recognized by antibodies to ligand-induced binding sites (LIBS) and also spontaneously bound the fibrinogen-mimetic antibody, PAC-1. Furthermore, significant amounts of bound fibrinogen were detected on his platelets ex vivo. No signs of platelet activation were observed on sections of unstimulated platelets from N.M. by electron microscopy. Immunogold labeling highlighted the presence of surface-bound fibrinogen but revealed platelet heterogeneity with regard to the surface density. When the patient's platelets were stimulated by thrombin-receptor activating peptide, amounts of surface-expressed GPIIb-IIIa increased and the aggregation response improved, although it failed to normalize. Platelets from N.M. were able to adhere and spread on immobilized fibrinogen. sequence analysis of genomic dna from N.M. revealed a homozygous g1776T>C mutation in GPIIIa, leading to a Cys560Arg amino acid substitution. A stable Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cell line was prepared expressing surface GPIIb-Arg560IIIa. Like platelets from the patient, GPIIb-Arg560IIIa-transfected cho cells constitutively bound LIBS antibodies and PAC-1. They also showed an enhanced ability to adhere on surface-bound fibrinogen. overall, these data demonstrate that a gain-of-function mutation can still be associated with a thrombasthenic phenotype even though platelets show spontaneous fibrinogen binding.
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2/6. Characterization of an antibody to the integrin beta 3 subunit (GP IIIa) from a patient with neonatal thrombocytopenia and an inherited deficiency of GP IIb-IIIa complexes in platelets (Glanzmann's thrombasthenia).

    Patient A.F. is a 28-year-old polytransfused woman with an inherited bleeding disorder, Glanzmann's thrombasthenia. An abnormal platelet function is linked to severe decreases in the platelet content of the integrins GP IIb and GP IIIa. In 1987 the patient gave birth to a child with severe anemia and thrombocytopenia. Serological tests revealed the presence of anti-platelet antibody together with an anti-Rhesus D. Western blotting identified a major antibody that reacted with a protein of 90-95 kDa present in platelets and endothelial cells. This was identified as the beta 3 integrin subunit (GP IIIa). Antibody-binding required intact disulfides, while controlled digestion with proteases showed the determinant(s) to be retained within chymotrypsin- (50, 63 kDa) and staphylococcus aureus V8 protease-derived (25-38 kDa) fragments of GP IIIa. Direct binding assays performed in the presence of monoclonal antibodies specific for different epitopes on GP IIb-IIIa complexes confirmed that the epitope was exposed on intact platelets and revealed a specific inhibition of A.F. IgG binding by the monoclonal antibody, AP-3. Other tests confirmed that the antibody reacted independently of the PlA or Pen polymorphisms carried by GP IIIa. IgG purified from A.F. plasma by adsorption and elution from paraformaldehyde-fixed normal platelets or electrophoretically separated GP IIIa was an inhibitor of ADP-induced platelet aggregation. Unexpectedly, Western blotting showed trace amounts of abnormally migrating GP IIIa in A.F. platelets, which retained an ability to react with her antibody. This suggests that the patient has formed an autoantibody reactive with an active site of the beta 3 integrin subunit and linked to the development of neonatal thrombocytopenia.
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3/6. Two human antibodies reacting with different epitopes on integrin beta 3 of platelets and endothelial cells.

    Glanzmann's thrombasthenia is an inherited bleeding disorder that results from a deficit of glycoprotein (GP) IIb-IIIa complexes in platelets. Patient (EBV) is an adult male with GP IIb-IIIa levels < 5% of normal values and a history of blood transfusions. Western-blot analysis revealed a strong IgG antibody to GP IIIa in his plasma. The determinants were localized to the minimum-sized fragment of GP IIIa (50 kDa) retained on chymotrypsin-treated platelets and were lost on reduction of disulphides. A female patient (AF), previously described by us [Jallu, V., Pico, M., Chevaleyre, J., Vezon, G., Kunicki, T.J. & Nurden, A.T. (1992) Hum. Antibod. hybridomas 3, 93-106] developed her anti-GP-IIIa antibody during pregnancy. This antibody was poorly reactive with the 50-kDa proteolytic fragment, yet bound to 115-kDa and 60-kDa hydrolytic products of GP IIIa. Antibodies from both patients recognized the GP-IIIa-like protein of endothelial cells, thus confirming that they were directed against the integrin beta 3-subunit. The (EBV) antibody reacted strongly with GP IIb-IIIa in an antigen capture assay performed with each of a panel of four murine monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) recognizing different epitopes on GP IIb-IIIa. In contrast, that from (AF) was specifically inhibited by AP-3, a murine mAb whose epitope is thought to be localized between amino acids 324-422 of GP IIIa. The residual GP IIb and GP IIIa contents of platelets from each patient were assessed in Western blotting using chemiluminescence detection. SZ-22, a murine mAb to the GP IIb heavy chain (140 kDa), located small amounts of a 130-kDa protein in (EBV) platelets. The anti-GP IIIa mAbs XII F9, P 37 and P 97 revealed trace amounts of protein with a relative mobility identical to that of GP IIIa in both (AF) and (EBV) platelets. This residual GP IIIa represented less than 0.5% of the amount in normal platelets. When, for each patient, plasma was tested in Western blotting against their own platelets, autoantibody activity to the residual GP IIIa was detected in both cases. Thus, patients (AF) and (EBV) have developed anti-GP-IIIa antibodies with restricted and distinct epitopes but recognizing self antigens.
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4/6. Glanzmann thrombasthenia secondary to a Gly273-->Asp mutation adjacent to the first calcium-binding domain of platelet glycoprotein IIb.

    We studied the defect responsible for Glanzmann thrombasthenia in a patient whose platelets expressed < 5% of the normal amount of GPIIb-IIIa. Genetic and biochemical evidence indicated that the patient's GPIIIa genes were normal. However, dna analysis revealed the patient homozygous for a G818-->A substitution in her GPIIb genes, resulting in a Gly273-->Asp substitution adjacent to the first GPIIb calcium-binding domain. To determine how this mutation impaired GPIIb-IIIa expression, recombinant GPIIb containing the mutation was coexpressed with GPIIIa in COS-1 cells. The GPIIb mutant formed stable GPIIb-IIIa heterodimers that were not immunoprecipitated by either of two heterodimer-specific monoclonal antibodies, indicating that the mutation disrupted the epitopes for these antibodies. Moreover, the GPIIb in the heterodimers was not cleaved into heavy and light chains, indicating that the heterodimers were not transported from the endoplasmic reticulum to the Golgi complex where GPIIb cleavage occurs, nor were the mutant heterodimers expressed on the cell surface. These studies demonstrate that a Gly273-->Asp mutation in GPIIb does not prevent the assembly of GPIIb-IIIa heterodimers, but alters the conformation of these heterodimers sufficiently to impair their intracellular transport. The impaired GPIIb-IIIa transport is responsible for the thrombasthenia in this patient.
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5/6. A dinucleotide deletion in exon 4 of the PlA2 allelic form of glycoprotein IIIa: implications for the correlation of serologic versus genotypic analysis of human platelet alloantigens.

    Platelets from a patient with a suspected case of posttransfusion purpura were subjected to alloantigen phenotyping and found to express the PlA1, but not the PlA2, allelic form of human platelet membrane glycoprotein (GP) IIIa on the platelet surface. However, genotyping showed unambiguously that the patient carried the genes for both of these GPIIa alleles. Based on these results, we postulated that the PlA2 allele was silent, ie, that this patient was a carrier for Glanzmann thrombasthenia (GT). Quantitative analysis of GPIIb-IIIa surface expression showed only 20,000 GPIIb-IIIa receptors/platelet, approximately half of the value obtained with control platelets. Southern blot analysis showed no large deletions or insertions within the GPIIIa gene, and amplification of all 14 exons encoding GPIIIa resulted in the production of normal sized polymerase chain reaction (PCR) products in all cases. dna-sequence analysis showed an AG dinucleotide deletion affecting codons 210 and 211 within exon 4 of the GPIIIa gene, leading to a change in reading frame and the creation of a stop codon 38 nucleotides down-stream. The predicted truncated protein consists of only the first 223 of the normal 762 amino acids, thus accounting for the failure to express the PlA2 allele on the platelet surface. While encountered only rarely, carriers of either GT or Bernard Soulier syndrome that are at the same time heterozygous for human platelet alloantigenic epitopes found on GPIb, GPIIb, or GPIIIa have the possibility to give discrepant results when comparing genotypic versus phenotypic analysis. In such situations, the combination of serologic and dna-based evaluation contributes complementary and beneficial diagnostic information than either one alone are able to provide.
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6/6. Autoimmune thrombocytopenic purpura (AITP) and acquired thrombasthenia due to autoantibodies to GP IIb-IIIa in a patient with an unusual platelet membrane glycoprotein composition.

    The subject (E.B.) is a 63-year-old woman with autoimmune thrombocytopenic purpura (AITP) who was first examined some 6 years ago with symptoms of epistaxis and gum bleeding, severe thrombocytopenia, and large platelets. Her serum tested positively with control platelets in the MAIPA assay performed using monoclonal antibodies (MoAb) to glycoprotein (GP) IIIa (XIIF9, Y2/51), yet was negative in the presence of MoAbs to GP IIb (SZ 22) or to the GP IIb-IIIa complex (AP2, P2). The patient's platelets failed to aggregate with all agonists tested except for ristocetin. IgG isolated from the patient's serum inhibited ADP-induced aggregation of control platelets. Unexpectedly, flow cytometry showed an altered expression of membrane glycoproteins on the patient's platelets. Levels of GP Ib-IX were much higher than previously located by us in platelets. In contrast, the expression of GP IIb-IIIa was about half that seen with control subjects. When Western blotting was performed, a striking finding was a strong band of 250 kDa recognized by a series of MoAbs to GP Ib alpha in addition to the band in the normal position of GP Ib alpha. Finally, ADP-stimulated (E.B.) platelets failed to express activation-dependent epitopes on GP IIb-IIIa as recognized by PAC-1, AP6, or F26 and additionally gave a reduced p-selectin expression after thrombin addition. In conclusion, we present a novel patient with a severely perturbed platelet function where an altered membrane GP profile is associated with the presence of an autoantibody recognizing a complex-dependent determinant on GP IIb-IIIa and inhibitory of platelet aggregation.
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