Cases reported "Thrombocytopenia"

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1/24. Type 2B Hiroshima: a variant of von Willebrand disease characterized by chronic thrombocytopenia and the presence of all von willebrand factor multimers in plasma.

    Type 2B von Willebrand disease (vWD) is a von willebrand factor (vWF) subtype with increased binding affinity for platelet glycoprotein (GP) Ib and is characterized by increased ristocetin-induced platelet agglutination at low concentrations of ristocetin. Usually there are no high molecular weight multimers of vWF, and platelet counts are within normal ranges in patients with type 2B vWD. We identified a variant of type 2B vWD showing the full range of vWF multimers in plasma accompanied by thrombocytopenia, which seemed to be caused by circulating platelet aggregation. Since the A1 domain and surrounding region of vWF alleles, in which mutation sites are known to be clustered in type 2B vWD, appeared normal on nucleotide sequencing, this increased binding affinity of vWF for GPIb may be due to a novel mechanism differing from that which usually underlies type 2B vWD.
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2/24. Neonatal thrombocytopenia induced by maternal anti-HLA antibodies: a potential side effect of allogenic leukocyte immunization for unexplained recurrent aborters.

    Allogenic leukocyte immunization is one of several treatments tried for unexplained recurrent aborters, and is reported to have few maternal and neonatal side effects after the immunotherapy having been reported to date. In the present study, we report a rare case of neonatal thrombocytopenia (41000 cells/microl) observed in a female infant delivered by an unexplained habitual aborter. The mother was immunized with her husband's leukocytes once before pregnancy and twice at the 5th and 6th week of her successful pregnancy. Serological studies using mixed passive hemagglutination assays (MPHA) showed that maternal serum did not contain any antibodies which were reactive to 11 platelet-specific antigens, or to granulocyte antigens extracted from 9 persons. Lymphocyte cytotoxicity tests, however, showed that maternal serum but not infant serum had anti-HLA antibodies against both paternal and infant lymphocytes. Moreover, the maternal serum was found to have anti-HLA IgGs against platelet antigens extracted from the father and the infant. It is highly likely that this case of neonatal thrombocytopenia was caused by transplacental perfusion of maternal anti-HLA antibodies whose production was induced or enhanced by the allogenic leukocytes immunizations.
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3/24. EDTA-dependent pseudothrombocytopenia in a case of liver cirrhosis.

    Pseudothrombocytopenia (PTCP) is the consequence of an EDTA-activated platelet agglutination, resulting in a spuriously low platelet count. We report the case of a 54-year-old man with EDTA-dependent PTCP associated with liver cirrhosis. He couldn't undergo endoscopic examination and dental care for two years because of a previous diagnosis of severe thrombocytopenia secondary to liver cirrhosis. Lack of PTCP recognition may lead the physician to misdiagnosis and mismanagement of the patient.
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4/24. Neonatal alloimmune thrombocytopenia due to anti-Nak(a).

    BACKGROUND: The accurate diagnosis of neonatal alloimmune thrombocytopenia is essential in the effective treatment of potentially serious bleeding in neonates. CASE REPORT: Reported here is a case of a full-term female baby who was delivered by vacuum extraction from a gravida 1 para 1 healthy mother. She presented with generalized petechiae and bilateral cephalhematoma, which she had had since birth. At 7 hours of life, she had an upper gastrointestinal hemorrhage and was found to have severe anemia and marked thrombo-cytopenia. Coagulation screening tests were normal. The diagnosis of neonatal alloimmune thrombocytopenia was suspected, and maternal serum was collected for further study. The baby was treated with a single dose of hydrocortisone (10 mg/kg) and IVIG (400 mg/kg) while waiting for irradiated platelets from her mother. After 30 mL of a transfusion of maternal platelets, the baby's platelet count rose dramatically, from 15,000 to 162,000 per microL, and it remained stable at that level. She was discharged on the 10th hospital day in good condition. During the follow-up period of 8 months, her growth and development were satisfactorily normal, as well as her platelet count. A high-titered platelet antibody was detected in the maternal serum by use of a solid phase platelet adherence technique. RESULTS: The specificity of the platelet antibody was identified as anti-Nak(a) by the mixed passive hemagglutination test method. CONCLUSION: These findings suggested a diagnosis of NAIT caused by anti-Nak(a).
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5/24. ceftriaxone causes drug-induced immune thrombocytopenia and hemolytic anemia: characterization of targets on platelets and red blood cells.

    BACKGROUND: ceftriaxone, a third-generation cephalosporin, has been reported to occasionally cause fatal drug-induced immune hemolytic anemia (DIHA). A clinical and serologic analysis of the first two patients with severe drug-induced thrombocytopenia (DITP) due to ceftriaxone and one patient with fatal DIHA is reported. STUDY DESIGN AND methods: Sera were assessed by the IAT, EIA, glycoprotein (GP)-specific immunoassay, flow cytometry, and immunoprecipitation using transfectants expressing GPIIb/IIIa and GPIb/IX and with different cephalosporins. RESULTS: Sera from patients 1 and 2 reacted strongly with PLTs in the presence of the drug, but not with RBCs. The binding sites of the drug-dependent antibodies (DDAbs) could be localized to GPIIb/IIIa and GPIb/IX, respectively. Inhibition studies indicated that DDAbs recognized epitopes residing on the GPIIb/IIIa complex and on the GPIX subunit, respectively. No cross-reactivity was observed with other cephalosporin derivatives. serum 3 showed strong agglutination with RBCs of Rh(null) phenotype in the presence of ex-vivo metabolites of ceftriaxone, but no cross-reactivity with PLTs. CONCLUSIONS: The first two cases of severe DITP and a third patient with DIHA are reported. DDAbs from all patients showed individual reaction patterns and clear cell lineage specificity. In addition, the DDAbs were dependent on the substitution at position 3 of the ceftriaxone molecule. epitopes on GPIIb/IIIa and GPIX were involved on PLTs. The Rh protein was not the only target of DDAbs on RBCs.
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6/24. Spurious thrombocytopenia due to EDTA-independent cold-reactive agglutinins.

    Spurious thrombocytopenia is an infrequent laboratory problem that may be confused with true thrombocytopenia, leading to inappropriate testing to determine the cause of the thrombocytopenia. Spurious thrombocytopenia has been associated most often with temperature-independent, ethylene diaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA)-dependent antibodies. Two cases of spurious thrombocytopenia due to temperature-dependent, EDTA-independent agglutinins are reported. Modification of sample processing to maintain the sample near 37 degrees C was necessary to obtain accurate platelet counts. The initial blood cell histograms were abnormal in each case, leading to the diagnosis. However, in one case significant platelet agglutination was not flagged on a subsequent histogram. These cases illustrate that spurious thrombocytopenia may be caused by more than one type of agglutinin and that not all samples with in vitro agglutination are detected by blood cell histograms.
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7/24. 48, XXYY syndrome associated with ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA)-dependent pseudothrombocytopenia.

    A 56-yr-old man with hypogonadism, gynecomastia, and mental retardation was evaluated for chromosome constitution and thrombocytopenia. Chromosomal analysis demonstrated the mosaicism of 48, XXYY and 47, XXY in the peripheral lymphocytes. Twenty out of twenty-five cells were 48, XXYY karyotype and the remaining five were 47, XXY karyotype. thrombocytopenia was the EDTA-dependent pseudothrombocytopenia type 1 (platelet agglutination). Serological examination suggests that the platelet agglutinin belongs to IgM-kappa type. The present case exhibited both EDTA-dependent pseudothrombocytopenia and the 48, XXYY syndrome. Although this combination may have occurred purely by change, the possibility of whether or not the mosaicism of lymphocytes produces platelet agglutinin remains to be clarified.
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8/24. Alloimmune neonatal neutropenia and thrombocytopenia associated with maternal anti HNA-1a, HPA-3b and HLA antibodies.

    The incidence of alloimmune neonatal neutropenia combined with neonatal alloimmune thrombocytopenia is very low. We report a case of a neonate who suffered severe neutropenia and thombocytopenia with widespread petechial spots. The presence of alloantibodies in mother's and patient's sera was analyzed by lymphocytotoxicity test, agglutination test, granulocyte indirect immunofluorescence test, platelet immunofluorescence test (PIFT) and solid phase enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Human neutrophil antigens (HNA) and human platelet antigen (HPA) genotypes were tested by polymerase chain reaction analyses. The mother's and patient's sera reacted with neutrophils and lymphocytes of the father. PIFT revealed the presence of IgG anti-platelet antibodies in the patient's serum but the test was negative in the maternal serum. Analyses of HNA-1 and HPA genotypes of the family revealed maternal-neonatal HNA-1a and HPA-3b mismatch. The study of the mother's and patient's sera showed the presence of anti HNA1a, HPA-3b and HLA antibodies specific for HLA-A3 and HLA-B38 antigens. These results suggest that the transplacental passage of maternal HNA-1a, HPA-3b and HLA alloantibodies caused neutropenia and thrombocytopenia in this patient.
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9/24. Synthesis of GPIb beta with novel transmembrane and cytoplasmic sequences in a Bernard-Soulier patient resulting in GPIb-defective signaling in cho cells.

    The molecular defect of a new Bernard-Soulier patient, originating from morocco and presenting thrombocytopenia with large platelets and an absence of ristocetin-induced platelet agglutination, has been identified and reproduced in transfected heterologous cells. Gene sequencing revealed insertion of a guanine in the domain coding for the transmembrane region of the glycoprotein (GP) Ib beta subunit. This mutation causes a translational frame shift, which creates putative novel transmembrane and cytoplasmic 37 and 125 amino acids domains, respectively. A 34 kDa immunoreactive GPIb beta band, instead of the normal 26 kDa subunit, was detected by Western blotting in lysates from the patient's platelets and from transfected cells and in immunoprecipitates of metabolically labeled cells. The abnormal subunit did not associate with GPIb alpha and was mainly intracellular, although a significant fraction could reach the cell surface. Cells expressing the mutant GPIb-IX complex adhered to a von Willebrand factor matrix but were unable to change shape, unlike cells expressing the wild-type receptor. These results strongly suggest a novel role of the GPIb beta subunit and its transmembrane-intracellular region in GPIb-VWF-dependent signaling, in addition to a role in correct assembly and cell surface targeting of the GPIb-V-IX complex.
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10/24. Anticoagulant-induced pseudothrombocytopenia occurring after transcatheter arterial embolization for hepatocellular carcinoma.

    Pseudothrombocytopenia (PTCP) is the in vitro phenomenon of anticoagulant-activated platelet agglutination that results in spuriously low platelet counts. We report the case of a 65-year-old man with EDTA- and sodium citrate-dependent PTCP occurring after transcatheter arterial embolization (TAE) for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) due to hepatitis c cirrhosis. Invasion of the portal and hepatic veins by HCC formed severe trans-tumoral arterio-venous shunts that were effectively treated by TAE. Two days after the therapy, PTCP was seen on blood count and continued for 4 months. The patient received unnecessary treatment for disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC) until the diagnosis of PTCP was established. PTCP is a rare complication but should be considered after TAE for HCC; lack of recognition may lead the physician to misdiagnosis and patient mismanagement.
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