Cases reported "Thrombocytopenia"

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1/6. Identification of new Fas mutations in a patient with autoimmune lymphoproliferative syndrome (ALPS) and eosinophilia.

    autoimmune lymphoproliferative syndrome (ALPS) is a rare, newly recognized, chronic lymphoproliferative disorder in children and is characterized by lymphadenopathy, splenomegaly, pancytopenia, autoimmune phenomena and expansion of double-negative (DN) T lymphocytes (TCR alpha beta , CD4-, CD8-). Defective lymphocyte apoptosis caused by mutations of the Fas (CD95) gene has been linked in the pathogenesis of ALPS, as binding of Fas-ligand to Fas can trigger apoptosis. Of the ALPS cases reported to date, point mutations, frameshifts and silent mutations in Fas all have been identified. We report two new point mutations in Fas in a child with ALPS and eosinophilia; studies on other family members established the pattern of inheritance for these mutations. Flow cytometric analysis of blood and tissues (spleen, lymph node, bone marrow) revealed abnormally expanded populations of DN T lymphocytes. Furthermore, activated lymphocytes and IFN gamma-activated eosinophils were resistant to Fas-mediated apoptosis. Eosinophil resistance to Fas-mediated apoptosis has not been previously described in ALPS. Sequencing of Fas revealed two separate mutations not previously reported. One mutation, a C to T change at base 836, was a silent mutation inherited from the mother, while the second mutation, a C to A change at base 916, caused a non-conservative amino acid substitution in the death domain of Fas, changing a threonine to a lysine. This mutation is associated with a predicted change in the structure of a part of the death domain from a beta-pleated sheet to an alpha-helix. We speculate that the mutation in the death domain prevents the interaction of Fas with intracellular mediators of apoptosis and is responsible for the autoimmune manifestations of ALPS and the abnormal lymphocytosis and eosinophilia in this patient.
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keywords = apoptosis
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2/6. Excessive apoptosis of bone marrow erythroblasts in a patient with autoimmune haemolytic anaemia with reticulocytopenia.

    We report a patient with autoimmune haemolytic anaemia (AIHA) with reticulocytopenia, who showed excessive apoptosis of erythroblasts. Ultrastructural analysis of bone marrow cells showed that 50% of erythroblasts had characteristic features of apoptosis, which was confirmed by staining with Annexin-V. In addition, in contrast to normal erythroblasts, Ig staining of the entire erythroblast population could be shown. These data show that apoptosis may contribute to the mechanism of reticulocytopenia in AIHA.
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ranking = 1.4
keywords = apoptosis
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3/6. Congenital microangiopathic hemolytic anemia and thrombocytopenia with unusually large von willebrand factor multimers and von willebrand factor-cleaving protease.

    Infantile or congenital cases of thrombotic microangiopathy have been reported that were familial and characterized by ongoing microangiopathic hemolysis and thrombocytopenia in the absence of regular fresh-frozen plasma transfusions. The authors describe a child with congenital microangiopathic hemolytic anemia and thrombocytopenia (CMHAT) who has received regular fresh-frozen plasma transfusions since infancy and has never had thrombotic complications. von willebrand factor (vWF)-cleaving protease activity was studied in the patient's pretransfusion and posttransfusion plasma samples as well as in her parents' plasma. The effects of the patient's and a control subject's plasma on human microvascular endothelial cells were also investigated. Unusually large vWF multimers were present in the patient's plasma both before transfusion (thrombocytopenic) and after transfusion. Unlike cases of chronic relapsing thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura, vWF-cleaving protease activity was present and treatment of cultured human endothelial cells with the patient's plasma did not induce apoptosis. These findings suggest that the patient with CMHAT may represent a different group in the broad spectrum of thrombotic microangiopathies.
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keywords = apoptosis
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4/6. Effect of anti-CD20 (rituximab) on resistant thrombocytopenia in autoimmune lymphoproliferative syndrome.

    Fas (CD95) plays an important role in apoptosis. patients with defects in Fas have an autoimmune lymphoproliferative syndrome (ALPS) characterized by lymphadenopathy, autoimmune cytopenias and an increased incidence of lymphomas. There are approximately 70 known cases described worldwide. The autoimmune cytopenias are difficult to treat in this group. We describe a patient with a defect in the death domain of the FAS molecule who had autoimmune thrombocytopenia resistant to conventional therapy but which responded to a combination of rituximab and vincristine.
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ranking = 0.2
keywords = apoptosis
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5/6. Mycophenolate mofetil as an alternate immunosuppressor for autoimmune lymphoproliferative syndrome.

    autoimmune lymphoproliferative syndrome (ALPS) is a disorder due to a genetic defect concerning programmed cell death (apoptosis). Most patients are carriers of a heterozygous mutation affecting the TNFRSF6 (Fas). Treatment of autoimmune complications of ALPS includes corticosteroids, gamma-globulin infusions, and in refractory cases, splenectomy, cytostatic agents, and bone marrow transplantation. A 10-year-old boy with ALPS manifested by recurrent febrile episodes, lymphadenopathy, splenomegaly, and cytopenias refractory to corticosteroid therapy is presented. Treatment with mycophenolate mofetil, an immunosuppressive agent typically used in organ transplantation was initiated. This treatment was successful with resolution of thrombocytopenia, decrease in lymphadenopathy, and improvement of his general clinical condition for over 2 years of duration.
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ranking = 0.2
keywords = apoptosis
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6/6. Deficiency of the Fas apoptosis pathway without Fas gene mutations in pediatric patients with autoimmunity/lymphoproliferation.

    Fas (CD95) is a transmembrane molecule that induces programmed cell death (PCD) of lymphocytes. We examined its function in children with chronic thrombocytopenia, serum autoantibodies, and lymphadenopathy and/or splenomegaly. We found that T-cell lines from six of seven patients with this autoimmune/lymphoproliferative disease (ALD) were relatively resistant to PCD induced by monoclonal antibodies to Fas. By contrast, Fas function was normal in control patients with typical chronic idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura (ITP) without lymphadenopathy. The defect was not due to decreased Fas expression, nor to over-production of soluble forms of Fas. Moreover, it specifically involved the Fas system because PCD was induced in the normal way by methylprednisolone. Complementary dna sequencing of the Fas gene did not identify any causal mutation in patients with ALD. This distinguished them from patients with the human autoimmune lymphoproliferative syndrome (ALPS), who carry mutations of the Fas gene. Moreover, patients with ALD did not show the peripheral expansion of CD4/CD8 double-negative T cells that characterizes the ALPS phenotype. Fas signaling involves activation of a sphingomyelinase-catalyzing production of ceramide. We found that ceramide-induced PCD was defective in patients with ALD and not in patients with typical chronic ITP. These data suggest that the ALD patient defect involves the Fas signaling pathway downstream from the sphingomyelinase and that Fas gene mutations and double-negative T-cell expansion are not the only signs of a defective Fas system.
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ranking = 0.8
keywords = apoptosis
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