Cases reported "Thrombocytopenia"

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1/228. Two separate episodes of hemophagocytic syndrome at a two-year interval in an apparently immunocompetent male.

    We describe two separate episodes of hemophagocytic syndrome (HPS) at an interval of two years in a seemingly immunocompetent male. This case suggests the possible existence of an inherent predisposition to HPS, in which otherwise negligible self-limited viral infection may trigger HPS. Laboratory data for a 16-year-old boy admitted with persistent high grade fever and severe thrombocytopenia disclosed coagulation abnormality, liver damage, and hypercytokinemia. A bone marrow aspiration revealed a proliferation of histiocytes with fresh hemophagocytosis. We diagnosed that he was suffering from HPS. Responding to steroid pulse therapy, he recovered completely and was discharged. After two years of healthy life, he became febrile again and was readmitted. The fever was refractory to antibiotics and was associated with a sudden drop in platelet count. Laboratory data and the bone marrow picture were consistent with those of HPS. He was again successfully treated with steroid. After the second episode, he has been healthy for more than two years.
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2/228. ticlopidine-induced thrombocytopenia.

    A case is presented of a 58-year-old woman developing profound thrombocytopenia within one week after starting treatment with ticlopidine. ticlopidine was prescribed following coronary artery stenting. The patient recovered rapidly after discontinuation of the drug, suggesting a possible relationship between ticlopidine and thrombocytopenia. Haematological disorders associated with ticlopidine, such as neutropenia, thrombocytopenia and bone marrow aplasia, are rare and usually seen within the first three months of therapy. As the use of ticlopidine increases, clinicians should be aware of haematological complications associated with its use and inform their patients appropriately.
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3/228. A fatal case of autoimmune thrombocytopenia with an IgM anti-GPIb/IX following one antigen mismatched unrelated donor bone marrow transplantation.

    We report the case of a 32-year-old patient with ALL who developed autoimmune thrombocytopenia 2 months following allogeneic bone marrow transplantation. An IgM autoantibody against the platelet glycoprotein Ib/IX complex was observed. Treatment with high-dose steroids and intravenous immunoglobulin g failed to produce any benefit and the thrombocytopenia led to fatal gastrointestinal haemorrhage. The possible factors contributing to post-allograft thrombocytopenia and potential management strategies are discussed.
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4/228. liver cirrhosis with marked thrombocytopenia and highly elevated serum thrombopoietin levels.

    Three patients with liver cirrhosis (LC) and a bleeding tendency due to marked thrombocytopenia of less than 20 x 10(9)/l were admitted to our hospital for further examination. bone marrow examination revealed megakaryocytic hypoplasia in all three patients. All patients exhibited amegakaryocytic thrombocytopenic purpura, myelodysplastic syndrome, or bone marrow hypoplasia. 111In-labeled platelet kinetic studies revealed decreased platelet production in all patients. Although serum thrombopoietin (sTPO) levels are usually within the normal level in patients with LC, the sTPO levels of our patients were about 10 times higher than the levels of normal subjects (1.22 /- 0.37 fmol/ml): 13.34, 16.79, and 10.46 fmol/ml, respectively. These sTPO data supported our findings of decreased megakaryopoiesis. Our findings suggest that examination of sTPO levels is useful in determining the etiology of marked thrombocytopenia in LC patients.
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5/228. Identification of new Fas mutations in a patient with autoimmune lymphoproliferative syndrome (ALPS) and eosinophilia.

    autoimmune lymphoproliferative syndrome (ALPS) is a rare, newly recognized, chronic lymphoproliferative disorder in children and is characterized by lymphadenopathy, splenomegaly, pancytopenia, autoimmune phenomena and expansion of double-negative (DN) T lymphocytes (TCR alpha beta , CD4-, CD8-). Defective lymphocyte apoptosis caused by mutations of the Fas (CD95) gene has been linked in the pathogenesis of ALPS, as binding of Fas-ligand to Fas can trigger apoptosis. Of the ALPS cases reported to date, point mutations, frameshifts and silent mutations in Fas all have been identified. We report two new point mutations in Fas in a child with ALPS and eosinophilia; studies on other family members established the pattern of inheritance for these mutations. Flow cytometric analysis of blood and tissues (spleen, lymph node, bone marrow) revealed abnormally expanded populations of DN T lymphocytes. Furthermore, activated lymphocytes and IFN gamma-activated eosinophils were resistant to Fas-mediated apoptosis. Eosinophil resistance to Fas-mediated apoptosis has not been previously described in ALPS. Sequencing of Fas revealed two separate mutations not previously reported. One mutation, a C to T change at base 836, was a silent mutation inherited from the mother, while the second mutation, a C to A change at base 916, caused a non-conservative amino acid substitution in the death domain of Fas, changing a threonine to a lysine. This mutation is associated with a predicted change in the structure of a part of the death domain from a beta-pleated sheet to an alpha-helix. We speculate that the mutation in the death domain prevents the interaction of Fas with intracellular mediators of apoptosis and is responsible for the autoimmune manifestations of ALPS and the abnormal lymphocytosis and eosinophilia in this patient.
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6/228. Acquired amegakaryocytic thrombocytopenia treated with allogeneic BMT: a case report and review of the literature.

    Despite recent advances in understanding the biology of thrombopoiesis, autoimmune thrombocytopenia caused by inhibition of megakaryocytic precursors, remains a treatment dilemma. We report a case of a 43-year-old female who developed amegakaryocytic thrombocyto- penia refractory to intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG), prednisone, cytoxan and vincristine. She was subsequently treated with myeloablative chemotherapy (busulfan and cyclophosphamide) followed by allogeneic bone marrow transplant from a 6/6 HLA-matched sibling. The patient is currently more than 1 year after transplant with complete donor chimerism and restoration of normal thrombopoiesis. A review of the literature shows that the clinical syndrome known as amegakaryocytic thrombocytopenia represents a heterogeneous group of disorders, and clinical experience with immunosuppression varies. Appropriate initial treatment for these patients requires immunosuppressive agents, including antithymocyte globulin (ATG) for steroid refractory disease. However, in the case of symptomatic patients who have an appropriate sibling donor, early hematopoietic progenitor cell transplant, even before administration of ATG, may be necessary. Further studies are needed to better define the pathogenesis and mechanism of this heterogeneous disorder before more definitive treatment algorithms can be established.
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7/228. Interferon therapy in multiple myeloma.

    A woman with multiple myeloma relapsed after 6 years of satisfactory tumor control with melphalan therapy. When progression then occurred, she was given exogenous human leukocyte interferon, 3 x 10(6) reference units twice daily i.m., as the sole therapy. Side-effects of the interferon therapy consisted of fever reactions and thrombocytopenia. One month after the initiation of interferon therapy there was 1) improvement of general health with less pain and tiredness, 2) reduction of the M-component, IgG-lambda, in the serum, and 3) a reduced plasma cell concentration in the bone marrow. After 5 months of interferon therapy tumor progression occurred despite continuous interferon treatment. At the same time, the tumor cells were less sensitive to interferon in in vitro tests than prior to interferon therapy. It is suggested that interferon therapy should be given as initial treatment to a few patients with multiple myeloma in a phase I trial.
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8/228. Inherited macrothrombocytopenia with distinctive platelet ultrastructural and functional features.

    We report a family with inherited macrothrombocytopenia and characteristic large membrane complexes in the platelets. Two affected subjects had platelet counts of 40 and 65 x 10(9)/L respectively as assessed by contrast phase microscopy. Ultrastructural studies revealed giant spheroid platelets with characteristic large membrane complexes and/or giant vacuoles containing platelet organelles. Immunohistochemical studies of actin and tubulin showed a disorganization of the microtubule and actin systems. These abnormalities were absent in leukocytes, indicating a platelet-specific cytoskeleton disorder. Platelet autoantibodies were repeatedly absent. Nevertheless, in the peripheral blood we observed several figures of platelet phagocytosis by macrophages and neutrophils. The in vitro aggregometric response of platelets to ADP, collagen, thrombin, ristocetin was present, but shape change was absent. The urinary excretion of thromboxane a2 metabolites of the affected subjects were approximately 2 standard deviations above control values, in spite of a reduced maximal biosynthetic capacity of thromboxane from giant platelets assessed in vitro during whole blood clotting. This inherited platelet disorder shows structural and functional features which allow to distinguish it from other syndromes associated with giant platelets. We also propose to include ultrastructural and cytoskeletal studies in the diagnosis as well as in the classification of inherited giant platelet disorders.
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9/228. Excessive apoptosis of bone marrow erythroblasts in a patient with autoimmune haemolytic anaemia with reticulocytopenia.

    We report a patient with autoimmune haemolytic anaemia (AIHA) with reticulocytopenia, who showed excessive apoptosis of erythroblasts. Ultrastructural analysis of bone marrow cells showed that 50% of erythroblasts had characteristic features of apoptosis, which was confirmed by staining with Annexin-V. In addition, in contrast to normal erythroblasts, Ig staining of the entire erythroblast population could be shown. These data show that apoptosis may contribute to the mechanism of reticulocytopenia in AIHA.
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10/228. Hepatosplenic T-cell lymphoma of alphabeta lineage in a 16-year-old boy presenting with hemolytic anemia and thrombocytopenia.

    The authors report an unusual case of peripheral T-cell lymphoma in a 16-year-old boy who presented initially with jaundice, splenomegaly, anemia, and thrombocytopenia. A lymphoma was found subsequently in the spleen, which was infiltrated extensively in the red pulp by medium-sized, blastic-appearing lymphoma cells. Immunologic characterization of these cells revealed positivity for CD3, CD5, CD45RO, CD56, and T-cell intracellular antigen (TIA), and negativity for CD2, CD3, CD4, CD8, CD57, CD34, and terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase (TdT). Conventional cytogenetic studies revealed the presence of isochromosome 7q. On follow up, this patient deteriorated rapidly, with evidence of liver and bone marrow involvement. Although the overall clinical and pathologic features of this disease were characteristic of hepatosplenic gammadelta T-cell lymphoma, the T-cell receptor of this tumor showed an immunophenotype of alphabeta not gammadelta lineage. Using the Southern blot technique, the authors demonstrated monoclonal gene rearrangement of the T-cell receptor beta-chain. Thus, they confirmed the existence of hepatosplenic alphabeta T-cell lymphoma. In view of its overall similarity to hepatosplenic gammadelta T-cell lymphoma, this unusual entity probably represents a slight biologic variation of the same disease.
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