Cases reported "Thrombocytopenia"

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1/262. Cryosupernatant plasma exchange in the treatment of antiphospholipid antibody syndrome with lupus nephritis.

    We report a case of a 22-year-old female with antiphospholipid antibody syndrome (APS) associated with systemic lupus erythematosus in whom cryosupernatant plasma exchange was effective and improved both the refractory venous thrombosis in her legs and relapsing thrombocytopenia. A renal biopsy specimen showed not only features of active lupus nephritis but also renal arteriolar thrombosis which is considered to be a type of thrombotic microangiopathy (TMA). Because a pathological role of unusually large von willebrand factor (vWF) multimers has been reported in patients with TMA including thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura, plasma exchange using replacement with cryosupernatant, which is free of unusually large vWF multimers, is likely to be an option of treatment modality for patients with refractory and chronic relapsing APS manifesting TMA.
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ranking = 1
keywords = thrombosis, venous thrombosis
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2/262. Successful thrombolysis of right atrial and ventricle thrombi encircling a temporary pacemaker lead in a patient with heparin-induced thrombocytopenia type II.

    Only few reports exist addressing the problem of temporary pacemaker leads associated with thromboembolic disease. We report the case of a 67-year-old patient who required a temporary transfemoral pacemaker due to AV block grade III. The patient developed extensive right atrial and ventricle thrombus formation attached to the pacing wire, as well as venous thrombosis at the insertion site due to heparin-induced thrombocytopenia type II (HIT type II). After short-term thrombolysis with 1 mg rt-PA/kg b.w. complete resolution of all clots could be shown by B-mode sonography and transthoracic, as well as transesophageal echocardiography.
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ranking = 0.5153416563527
keywords = thrombosis, venous thrombosis
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3/262. Determination of heparin-induced thrombocytopenia: a rapid flow cytometric assay for direct demonstration of antibody-mediated platelet activation.

    heparin-induced thrombocytopenia (HIT) and thrombosis are serious complications of heparin therapy. Recently, we have reported a practical and rapid functional flow cytometric assay (FCA) for the diagnosis of HIT with high specificity and sensitivity compared with the radioactive serotonin-release assay (SRA). In the present study, we added an immune-neutralization assay to directly demonstrate the antibody-mediated process, and tested the immune compatibility of low-molecular-weight heparin (LMWH) Lovenox and the heparinoid Orgaran (danaproid) using plasma from 18 patients with HIT confirmed by both FCA and SRA. The clinical utility of this modified method is demonstrated by a pediatric patient with a complex clinical presentation who developed thrombocytopenia with multiple thromboses while on heparin therapy. ELISA and SRA (performed in three independent laboratories) for diagnosis of HIT were both negative. In contrast, the FCA for detecting activated platelets expressing anionic phospholipids, was highly and reproducibly positive with both unfractionated and LMWH. Another FCA also demonstrated the surface expression of the alpha-granule membrane p-selectin (CD62p). Compatibility testing with the heparinoid Orgaran was also positive (and with plasma from 4 of the 18 patients with HIT). heparin was discontinued, along with full recovery of the platelet count. The capacity of the patient's plasma to activate platelets in the presence of heparin gradually decreased over 4 weeks consistent with antibody clearance. The responsible mechanism was clarified using an immune-neutralization assay, which showed a dose response neutralization of the plasma activity by antibodies against human immunoglobulin g (IgG) and IgM. This assay was also reproducible in the 18 patients with HIT. We conclude that the functional FCA with its modification is practical, sensitive, and specific for reliable diagnosis of HIT. It can simultaneously assess the compatibility of alternative therapies and directly confirm the antibody-mediated process. Further, it is particularly useful to clarify mechanisms of thrombocytopenia and thrombosis and to direct therapy in patients with a complex presentation and confounding laboratory results who often need prompt diagnosis and treatment.
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ranking = 0.9693166872946
keywords = thrombosis
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4/262. Clinical experience with combined treatment of thrombin inhibitors and GPIIb/IIIa inhibitors in patients with HIT.

    Despite the use of potent anticoagulants such as r-hirudin and argatroban, the morbidity/mortality of heparin-induced thrombocytopenia (HIT) patients remains high. In the last several months, we have treated three HIT-positive patients with a combined therapy of thrombin inhibitor and GPIIb/IIIa inhibitor when treatment with thrombin inhibitor alone failed to alleviate acute thrombosis. Combination therapies included r-hirudin (Refludan) with tirofiban (Aggrastat) or argatroban (Novastan) with ReoPro. A reduced dose of the thrombin inhibitor with the standard dose of the antiplatelet drug was the dosing regimen used. In all cases, there was no overt bleeding that required intervention and all patients had improved or fully recovered. This first report of the use of GPIIb/IIIa inhibitors with thrombin inhibitors in HIT patients with active thrombosis suggests that this combined therapy may be more effective than thrombin inhibitor treatment alone. The data from these three cases warrant testing of this therapeutic regimen in larger studies to determine optimal dosing strategies.
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ranking = 0.9693166872946
keywords = thrombosis
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5/262. Immediate vein graft thrombectomy for acute occlusion after coronary artery bypass grafting.

    A 76-year-old man underwent coronary bypass grafting 3 days after exposure to heparin. Immediately after chest closure, he developed acute graft thrombosis and cardiac arrest in the setting of thrombocytopenia. Immediate graft thrombectomies were performed. Postoperative tests for heparin-induced thrombocytopenia and thrombosis (HITT) were positive. This case represents a dramatic example of HITT after coronary revascularization.
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ranking = 0.97147641272803
keywords = thrombosis, vein
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6/262. Treatment of may-thurner syndrome with catheter-directed thrombolysis and stent placement, complicated by heparin-induced thrombocytopenia.

    may-thurner syndrome is an uncommon process in which the right common iliac artery compresses the left common iliac vein, resulting in left iliofemoral deep vein thrombosis and severe leg edema. We report the case of a 41-year-old female who presented with severe left leg edema present for 1 day. One week earlier she had experienced acute shortness of breath and pleuritic chest pain. Duplex ultrasound revealed a left iliofemoral deep vein thrombosis. A computed tomography (CT) scan performed for abdominal pain revealed thrombosis of the entire left common and external iliac veins. A ventilation-perfusion scan diagnosed a pulmonary embolism. The patient was treated with systemic intravenous heparin and catheter-directed thrombolysis of the iliofemoral deep vein thrombosis. Complete thrombolysis and iliofemoral vein patency was achieved over 5 days. A persistent stenosis in the left common iliac vein consistent with may-thurner syndrome was alleviated with percutaneous balloon angioplasty and placement of a Wallstent. heparin therapy was terminated at the time of stenting because of suspected heparin-induced thrombocytopenia. The patient was started on a continuous infusion of 10% dextran 40, and warfarin therapy was initiated. heparin-induced antibodies were confirmed by a C-14 serotonin release assay. The endovascular reconstruction remains patent 4 months later. heparin-induced thrombocytopenia complicating endovascular reconstruction of the iliofemoral venous system in a patient with may-thurner syndrome is an uncommon occurrence. This case and a review of the literature are discussed.
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ranking = 2.1369166985735
keywords = thrombosis, deep vein thrombosis, deep vein, vein thrombosis, vein, deep
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7/262. Perinatal management of fetal hemolytic disease due to Rh incompatibility combined with fetal alloimmune thrombocytopenia due to HPA-5b incompatibility.

    We report out experience in the perinatal management of a complex case of fetal hemolytic disease primarily due to Rhesus incompatibility combined with fetal alloimmune thrombocytopenia. The lowest fetal hemoglobin and platelet levels were 2.6 g/dl and 13,000/microliter, respectively. Intrauterine treatment consisted of six transfusions of packed red cells into the umbilical vein and one transfusion of platelets. The neonate required four transfusions of packed red cells to correct her hyporegenerative erythropoiesis. Postnatal management also included one platelet transfusion, intravenous immunoglobulins and erythropoietin. Although some degree of fetal thrombocytopenia may invariably be found in fetal red cell incompatibility, other rare causes need to be excluded.
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ranking = 0.00053993135835721
keywords = vein
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8/262. sagittal sinus thrombosis associated with thrombocytopenia: a report of two patients.

    Reported are two patients presenting with both thrombocytopenia and sagittal sinus thrombosis. The first patient is a 42-month-old male with no identified thrombophilic risk factors who developed acute neurologic symptoms after an acute infection. The second patient is a 22-month-old female with no history of preceding infection but had a positive lupus anticoagulant test. She also developed deep venous thrombosis and was treated with intravenous heparin. Both patients are currently doing well without neurologic deficits. To the authors' knowledge the second patient is the youngest reported patient with cerebral vein thrombosis associated with thrombocytopenia and lupus anticoagulant. These observations call attention to the need for a thorough investigation of thrombophilic risk factors in pediatric patients with thrombotic complications.
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ranking = 3.4240262298535
keywords = thrombosis, venous thrombosis, vein, deep
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9/262. atrial fibrillation and tumor emboli as manifestations of metastatic leiomyosarcoma to the heart and lung.

    leiomyosarcoma is a malignant tumor of the smooth muscle that rarely occurs in the gastrointestinal tract. High-grade leiomyosarcomas of the rectosigmoid usually metastasize to the liver and lungs. Although it is unusual, metastases to the heart have been reported. When this occurs, the metastatic tumor usually seeds in the right atrium and pulmonary artery. We report on and discuss a patient who had atrial fibrillation, peripheral emboli, and thrombocytopenia resulting from a low-grade rectosigmoid leiomyosarcoma metastatic to the pulmonary vein and left atrium. atrial fibrillation is not a common manifestation of malignant neoplasms that have spread to the heart. Surgical removal of the tumor terminated the arrhythmia and thrombocytopenia.
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ranking = 0.00053993135835721
keywords = vein
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10/262. heparin-induced thrombocytopenia in paediatric patients--a review of the literature and a new case treated with danaparoid sodium.

    The immunological form of heparin-induced thrombocytopenia (HIT) is a potentially life-threatening adverse reaction of heparin medication. It is mediated by multimolecular complexes consisting of platelet factor 4 (PF4)-heparin-IgG which bind to platelets via platelet Fc gamma receptors. Cross-linking of multiple Fc gamma receptors results in platelet activation, platelet aggregation and enhanced thrombin generation with a increasing risk of developing new thrombosis. In children, data on HIT are sparse. This review of the literature reports on 8 children aged 3 months to 15 years and 14 newborns suffering from HIT. Additionally, we report one new case treated with danaparoid sodium. Thrombotic complications were venous (n = 12) and arterial (n = 15). The children received heparin either for a spontaneous thrombotic event, for severe cardiac diseases or to maintain patency of intravascular catheters which are used for nutrition, blood sampling, and for application of medication. After diagnosis of HIT they were further anticoagulated with aspirin, warfarin, danaparoid sodium, lepirudin or low molecular weight heparin. CONCLUSION: Although HIT is less frequently reported in newborns and children, paediatricians should be aware of HIT in childhood as a potential complication of heparin application. The widespread practice of flushing catheters with heparin should also be debated in view of the risk of triggering the primary immune-response of HIT. In 1999, treatment options for further parenteral anticoagulation of HIT patients are danaparoid sodium (a low-molecular weight heparinoid) and lepirudin (a direct thrombin inhibitor).
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ranking = 0.4846583436473
keywords = thrombosis
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