Cases reported "Thromboembolism"

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1/63. Complications of treatment: pulmonary embolism following craniotomy for meningioma.

    We present two case reports of patients who suffered a pulmonary embolism (PE) in the week following surgery for removal of a meningioma. Both patients were anticoagulated in the first week following surgery, and as a result, both suffered intracerebral bleeds requiring further surgery. An inferior vena caval (IVC) filter was then used in both patients to prevent further embolic events. Following our experience, we believe that it is dangerous to use intravenous anticoagulation within 6 days of cranial surgery for removal of a meningioma. We have reviewed the literature concerning the present guidelines for thromboembolic prophylaxis in patients requiring neurosurgery and believe that consideration of subcutaneous low-molecular-weight heparin should now be given to all patients requiring craniotomy for removal of a meningioma.
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ranking = 1
keywords = cerebral
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2/63. thromboembolism originated from the pulmonary artery stump after Fontan operation.

    Cerebral thromboembolism is a rare but serious complication after Fontan operation. This is the report of a patient who underwent a successful intracardiac thrombectomy for cerebral thromboembolism after Fontan operation. A 2-year-old girl was referred to us with the diagnosis of tricuspid atresia without pulmonary stenosis, normally related great arteries, and a ventricular septal defect. Although she underwent a successful Fontan operation and division of the main pulmonary artery, she developed a cerebrovascular event at 3 weeks after the operation. echocardiography demonstrated a large thrombus within the residue of the main pulmonary artery, and suggested that the thrombus had migrated into the systemic circulation by way of the ventricular septal defect. At 2 weeks after the cerebrovascular event, she underwent thrombectomy and excision of the pulmonary valve. Although she has developed slight left-sided hemiparesis, she is leading a normal life at 1 year after the operation.
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ranking = 1
keywords = cerebral
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3/63. Mobile intracardiac calcinosis: a new risk of thromboembolism in patients with haemodialysed end stage renal disease.

    Cardiac calcinosis is a common complication of end stage renal disease. A newly observed risk of thromboembolism is reported in four patients with mobile cardiac calcinosis, treated with long term dialysis. Rapidly growing mobile calcification was confirmed by echocardiography. Each patient had an imbalance in serum calcium x inorganic phosphate (Ca x P product >/= 50); this imbalance could not be treated due to the sudden death of the patient or the need for surgical resection to prevent recurrent cerebral thromboembolism. Histological examination revealed intracardiac calcinosis in three cases, and each case showed haemodialysis hypoparathyroidism (intact PTH < 160 pg/ml). thromboembolism in such cases is rare, however it indicates a need for cautious echocardiographic monitoring in end stage renal disease in patients with an uncontrolled Ca x P product.
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ranking = 1
keywords = cerebral
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4/63. Biatrial myxoma resembling an interatrial clot in transit on echocardiogram.

    A 47-year-old man had an embolic stroke. Transesophageal echocardiography showed biatrial, elongated, mobile masses that appeared interconnected via a patent foramen ovale. echocardiography did not distinguish between an interatrial clot in transit and an atypical biatrial myxoma. Surgical resection and subsequent histopathologic examination identified the mass as a biatrial myxoma. This case identifies a limitation of echocardiography in the diagnosis of cardiac myxoma.
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ranking = 1.2471301645136
keywords = foramen
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5/63. Successful intracranial thrombolysis for cerebral thromboembolic complications resulting from cardiovascular diagnostic and interventional procedures.

    We report successful local thrombolysis to treat intracranial ischemic complications of angioplasty with stenting of a high-grade carotid artery stenosis, angioplasty with thrombolysis of an occluded venous graft, and routine coronary angiography. Intracranial complications occurring during cardiovascular diagnostic or interventional procedures can be reversed with prompt management via rescue thrombolysis. These events should not be viewed as irreversible complications, and the opportunity for intracranial thrombolysis should be available wherever cardiovascular interventional procedures are performed. The ability to quickly recognize and remedy complications occurring during these procedures is another step in the continued advancement of neuroendovascular therapy.
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ranking = 4
keywords = cerebral
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6/63. diagnosis and management of inadvertently placed pacing and ICD leads in the left ventricle: a multicenter experience and review of the literature.

    Three patients from different centers with pacemaker or ICD leads endocardially implanted in the left ventricle are described. All leads, two ventricular pacing leads and one ICD lead, were inserted through a patent foramen ovale or an atrial septum defect. The diagnosis was made 9 months, 14 months, and 16 years, respectively, after implantation. All patients had right bundle branch block configuration during ventricular pacing. Chest X ray was suggestive of a left-sided positioned lead except in the ICD patient. diagnosis was confirmed with echocardiography in all patients. One patient with a ventricular pacing lead presented with a transient ischemic attack at 1-month postimplantation. During surgical repair of the atrial septum defect 14 months later, the lead was extracted and thrombus was attached to the lead despite therapy with aspirin. The other patients were asymptomatic without anticoagulation (9 months and 16 years after implant). No thrombus was present on the ICD lead at the time of the cardiac transplantation in one patient. We reviewed 27 patients with permanent leads described in the literature. Ten patients experienced thromboembolic complications, including three of ten patients on antiplatelet therapy. The lead was removed in six patients, anticoagulation with warfarin was effective for secondary prevention in the four remaining patients. In the asymptomatic patients, the lead was removed in five patients. In the remaining patients, 1 patient was on warfarin, 2 were on antiplatelet therapy, and in 3 patients the medication was unknown. After malposition was diagnosed, three additional patients were treated with warfarin. In conclusion, if timely removal of a malpositioned lead in the left ventricle is not preformed, lifelong anticoagulation with warfarin can be recommended as the first choice therapy and lead extraction reserved in case of failure or during concomitant surgery.
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ranking = 7.9165753052338
keywords = foramen, ventricle
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7/63. Vertebral artery anomaly with atraumatic dissection causing thromboembolic ischemia: a case report.

    STUDY DESIGN: A case report is presented. OBJECTIVES: To illustrate a rare cause of atraumatic vertebral artery dissection resulting from anomalous entry of the vessel at the C3 transverse foramen induced by normal physiologic head and neck motion, and to review vertebral artery anatomy and mechanisms whereby it is vulnerable to pathologic compression. SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA: The vertebral artery usually enters the transverse foramen at C6. Rarely, the artery enters at C5 or C4. Only one prior case with entry at C3 has been reported. That patient experienced recurrent quadriplegia and locked-in syndrome caused by vertebral artery obstruction. A 27-year-old woman with a history of classic migraine experienced neurologic symptoms on three occasions related to physiologic neck and arm movements. Magnetic resonance angiogram was not diagnostic, but standard arteriography demonstrated anomalous vertebral artery entry into the C3 transverse foramen and focal dissection. methods: Pertinent literature and the patient's history, physical examination, and radiologic studies were reviewed. RESULTS: Standard cervico-cerebral arteriogram demonstrated focal dissection at C4 and thromboembolic complications in distal vertebral and basilar arteries. Initially, diagnosis by magnetic resonance angiogram was elusive. However, arteriography allowed prompt diagnosis followed by anticoagulation with resolution of neurologic symptoms. CONCLUSIONS: vertebral artery dissection without trauma is rare, but should be considered when neurologic symptoms accompany physiologic cervical movements. For cases in which vertebrobasilar thromboembolic ischemia is suspected, magnetic resonance angiogram may prove inadequate for demonstrating the causative vascular pathology. Therefore, standard cervico-cerebral arteriography should be performed.
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ranking = 5.7413904935407
keywords = foramen, cerebral
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8/63. Libman-Sacks endocarditis in a pregnant woman with acute respiratory distress syndrome.

    BACKGROUND: Sterile fibrinous vegetations on the mitral valve (Libman-Sacks endocarditis) might be found in one-third of patients with antiphospholipid antibodies. Usually of minor hemodynamic significance, these vegetations might complicate acute respiratory distress syndrome in pregnancy. CASE: Despite delivery and aggressive medical therapy, a 17-year-old primigravida with pyelonephritis and acute respiratory distress syndrome suffered rapid decompensation. echocardiography showed mitral valve vegetations with severe regurgitation. blood cultures were negative, but antinuclear antibody test and lupus anticoagulant were positive. The patient died of massive cerebral infarction and brainstem herniation. autopsy found a patent foramen ovale and Libman-Sacks endocarditis. CONCLUSION: With rapid decompensation of acute respiratory distress syndrome in pregnancy, despite aggressive medical therapy, complicating processes must be considered, especially with antiphospholipid antibodies, which can be associated with sterile heart vegetations and subsequent fatal thromboembolism.
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ranking = 2.2471301645136
keywords = foramen, cerebral
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9/63. Disseminated mucormycosis caused by absidia corymbifera leading to cerebral vasculitis.

    An 18-year-old woman was admitted to hospital because of subcutaneous hematoma and fever of unknown origin. Acute myeloid leukemia was diagnosed and empirical antimicrobial treatment and induction chemotherapy were started. After initial defervescence, fever relapsed 2 days after the onset of neutropenia. The CT scan of the lung was consistent with an invasive fungal infection. Treatment with amphotericin b was started and antimicrobial treatment was continued with liposomal amphotericin b because of an increase in creatinine later. The fever persisted and the patient suddenly developed progressive neurological symptoms. CT scan of the head suggested cerebral infarction and angiography of the extra- and intracranial arteries showed signs of vasculitis. Six days after the onset of neurological symptoms cerebral death was diagnosed. autopsy revealed non-septate, irregularly branched hyphae in various histologic sections including brain. absidia corymbifera could be isolated from lung tissue confirming the diagnosis of disseminated mucormycosis. In this case, angiographic findings suggested severe cerebral vasculitis which was in fact caused by thromboembolic dissemination of fungal hyphae. This case underlines the fact that cerebral symptoms in febrile neutropenic patients are highly indicative for fungal infections of the brain.
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ranking = 8
keywords = cerebral
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10/63. Thrombus in the left ventricle of a child with systemic emboli: an unusual presentation of hereditary protein c deficiency.

    We present a case of left ventricular thrombus in a child with a normal functioning left ventricle. The diagnosis was made by 2-dimensional echocardiography after 2 episodes of systemic emboli. Hereditary protein c deficiency diagnosed in the patient provides the probable pathogenesis of the thrombus formation. Systemic emboli necessitates cardiac examination, and in cases of unusual thrombi, hereditary or acquired thrombophilic risk factors should be considered.
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ranking = 5.5578709506002
keywords = ventricle
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