Cases reported "Thrombosis"

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1/355. Thrombosis of mitral valve prosthesis presenting as abdominal pain.

    A 67-year-old woman presented with abdominal pain, anemia, and leukocytosis. Five years previously, the patient had undergone mitral valve replacement with a St. Jude bileaflet mechanical prosthesis. After her admission, echocardiography confirmed an immobile leaflet of the prosthetic valve. At urgent surgery, thrombosis and pannus, obstructing the disc, were found, and the mechanical valve was replaced with a bioprosthesis. The incidence of mitral valve thrombosis is low, ranging from 0.1% to 5.7% per patient per year. patients who receive inadequate anticoagulation, particularly with valve prostheses in the mitral position, have an increased risk for thrombus or pannus formation. Presentation varies, from symptoms of congestive heart failure or systemic embolization, to fever or no symptoms. New or worsening symptoms in a patient with a prosthetic heart valve should raise concerns about prosthetic dysfunction. Aggressive investigation and, if indicated, urgent or emergency surgery for treatment can be lifesaving.
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2/355. Successful thrombolysis of right atrial and ventricle thrombi encircling a temporary pacemaker lead in a patient with heparin-induced thrombocytopenia type II.

    Only few reports exist addressing the problem of temporary pacemaker leads associated with thromboembolic disease. We report the case of a 67-year-old patient who required a temporary transfemoral pacemaker due to AV block grade III. The patient developed extensive right atrial and ventricle thrombus formation attached to the pacing wire, as well as venous thrombosis at the insertion site due to heparin-induced thrombocytopenia type II (HIT type II). After short-term thrombolysis with 1 mg rt-PA/kg b.w. complete resolution of all clots could be shown by B-mode sonography and transthoracic, as well as transesophageal echocardiography.
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3/355. lemierre syndrome and acute mastoiditis.

    lemierre syndrome seldom follows an episode of pharyngotonsillitis. Characteristically, it is comprised of septic thrombosis of the internal jugular vein and bacteremia, leading to lung emboli and metastatic abscess formation. We describe lemierre syndrome that complicates an acute mastoiditis, with considerations regarding its pathogenesis and management. Despite its sporadic occurrence, awareness of lemierre syndrome is important, since early recognition reduces both the morbidity and mortality associated with it.
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4/355. A rare cause of right atrial mass: thrombus formation and infection complicating a ventriculoatrial shunt for hydrocephalus.

    BACKGROUND: Thrombus formation around the intracardiac end of the catheter, thromboembolism, and infection are the most important and life-threatening complications of ventriculoatrial shunts. In this article we report a patient with a large right atrial mass that was diagnosed by 2-D echocardiogram and removed via standard median sternotomy and cardiopulmonary bypass. CASE DESCRIPTION: A 63-year-old man who had a right ventriculoatrial shunt was admitted to our department in a septic clinical condition. His hemoglobin was 10.7 grams, white blood cell count was 22,900/mm3, and sedimentation rate was 50 mm/hr. Blood cultures grew coagulase negative staphylococcus. The echocardiogram showed a right atrial mass at the tip of the shunt catheter. The mass had a cystic and "glove-like" appearance and had a pendulous motion in the right atrium. After combined antibiotic therapy for 10 days, symptoms were relieved but echocardiographic findings did not change. A surgical approach was chosen because of the unchanged size of the mass and the risk of pulmonary embolism. First, the distal part of the ventriculoatrial shunt was separated from its pump and a new ventriculoperitoneal shunt was placed. After this, a standard median sternotomy, cardiopulmonary bypass and right atriotomy was performed. The tip of the shunt catheter with the attached pedunculated mass was removed. CONCLUSION: There are few cases of a large right atrial thrombus secondary to a ventriculoatrial shunt in the literature. Because of these serious complications of ventriculoatrial shunting, careful 2-D transthoracic echocardiographic examination should be mandatory for patients with ventriculoatrial shunts.
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5/355. Clinical implications of elevated PAI-1 revisited: multiple arterial thrombosis in a patient with essential thrombocythemia and elevated plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) levels: a case report and review of the literature.

    Plasminogen activator inhibitor (PAI-1), a member of the serine protein family, is the most active in vivo inhibitor of fibrinolysis induced by plasminogen, tissue plasminogen activator (tPA), and urokinase type plasminogen activator (uPA). While the association between elevated PAI-1 and thrombogenesis has been well studied for several disease processes, including coronary disease, postoperative deep vein thrombosis (DVT), myocardial infarction, malignancy, and diabetes, few studies have concentrated on the correlation between elevated PAI-1 levels and thrombogenesis in patients with myeloproliferative disorders. Essential thrombocythemia (ET), a chronic myeloproliferative disorder, characterized by the overproduction of poorly functioning platelets, is associated with both thrombotic and hemorrhagic life-threatening complications. Although the events resulting in thrombogenesis in such patients may be multifactorial in nature, an association between elevated PAI-1 levels and thrombus formation has been proposed. Herein we present a patient diagnosed with ET complicated by multiple episodes of arterial thrombosis. Elevations in PAI-1 levels were documented repeatedly. The role of elevated PAI-1 when associated with other disease processes is also discussed.
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6/355. portal vein thrombosis after splenectomy for hereditary stomatocytosis in childhood.

    portal vein thrombosis is a rare but potentially lethal complication in children requiring splenectomy. We report on a 15-year-old boy with a dehydrated hereditary stomatocytosis, who underwent splenectomy and presented a postoperative partial portal vein thrombosis. With prompt heparin therapy, neither propagation of the thrombus nor further cavernous transformation in the following occurred 6 years. CONCLUSION: Recent data suggest that hereditary stomatocytosis carries a high risk of thrombotic complications, especially after splenectomy. This procedure, the benefit of which is limited in this condition, should therefore be strongly avoided.
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7/355. The formation of two layers detectable by intraoperative echocardiography is a reliable predictor of late thrombosis within the false lumen of a dissected aorta.

    The subjects consisted of one patient with chronic type A and three patients with chronic type B aortic dissection, who underwent replacement of an aorta obliterating distal false lumen. After the repair, the formation of two layers was detected by direct scanning echocardiography within the false lumen even during heparinization. In all cases, postoperative computed tomography confirmed complete thrombosis of the false lumen. The formation of two layers was considered to be a reliable predictor of late thrombosis.
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8/355. Pediatric heparin-induced thrombocytopenia: management with Danaparoid (orgaran).

    heparin-induced thrombocytopenia is a rare and serious complication of anticoagulation therapy. There remains a paucity of information pertaining to alternative anticoagulation strategies for use during cardiopulmonary bypass concomitant with heparin-induced thrombocytopenia, especially in children. We report the successful treatment of heparin-induced thrombocytopenia and subsequent hemorrhagic complications postoperatively in a 2-year-old child with Danaparoid (orgaran). Emergent conduit revision with cardiopulmonary bypass was required for a thrombosed systemic-venous to pulmonary-arterial connection (completion modified fontan procedure). Required doses of Danaparoid were consistently twofold that previously reported for adults.
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9/355. Central venous catheter mechanical irritation of the right atrial free Wall:A cause for thrombus formation.

    thromboembolism is a major complication of long-term central venous catheter, usually associated with catheter or venous occlusion. Intracavitary right atrial thrombosis is currently considered to result from line-tip thrombosis extension. We report three adult patients in whom repeated mechanical trauma to the right atrial wall was probably the main mechanism. Transesophageal echocardiography revealed back and forth movement of the central catheter into a thrombus attached to the right atrial wall, thus suggesting a mechanism of catheter-associated thrombus formation, not previously visualized or suggested. Catheter removal and anticoagulation administration were undertaken with an uneventful clinical course and almost complete disappearance of the thrombi on transesophageal echocardiography follow-up.
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10/355. Spontaneous closure and thrombosis of a ductal aneurysm in a neonate.

    The natural history of a ductal aneurysm detected prenatally is presented. Neurologic concerns in the neonate and absence of cardio-respiratory compromise permitted serial echo demonstration of constriction, thickening and subsequent closure with formation of thrombus in the aneurysm.
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