Cases reported "Thrombosis"

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1/324. Familial thrombophilia and the prothrombin 20210A mutation: association with increased thrombin generation and unusual thrombosis.

    The 20210A prothrombin mutation has recently been associated with an increased risk of venous thrombosis, but the mechanism of the increased thrombotic risk in affected persons has not been elucidated. We report on a thrombophilic family in which the proband presented with cerebral vein thrombosis and homozygosity for the 20210A prothrombin mutation as her only identifiable risk factor for venous thrombosis. Extended genotyping of family members revealed seven other affected, but asymptomatic, first-degree relatives (one A/A homozygote and six G/A heterozygotes). plasma levels of prothrombin, prothrombin fragments 1 2 and thrombin-antithrombin complexes were highest in A/A homozygotes, intermediate in G/A heterozygotes and lowest in those with the G/G homozygous normal genotype, while D-dimer levels were elevated only in A/A homozygotes. Our results suggest that the 20210A prothrombin mutation is associated with activation of coagulation and increased thrombin generation, not only in patients with a past history of thrombosis but also in otherwise healthy asymptomatic persons. In a similar fashion to the homozygous factor v Leiden mutation, patients with the homozygous 20210A prothrombin mutation could be at highest risk of thrombosis, as suggested by our patient who presented with unusual thrombosis.
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ranking = 1
keywords = cerebral
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2/324. Successful thrombolysis of right atrial and ventricle thrombi encircling a temporary pacemaker lead in a patient with heparin-induced thrombocytopenia type II.

    Only few reports exist addressing the problem of temporary pacemaker leads associated with thromboembolic disease. We report the case of a 67-year-old patient who required a temporary transfemoral pacemaker due to AV block grade III. The patient developed extensive right atrial and ventricle thrombus formation attached to the pacing wire, as well as venous thrombosis at the insertion site due to heparin-induced thrombocytopenia type II (HIT type II). After short-term thrombolysis with 1 mg rt-PA/kg b.w. complete resolution of all clots could be shown by B-mode sonography and transthoracic, as well as transesophageal echocardiography.
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ranking = 13.074857950796
keywords = ventricle
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3/324. A successful case of pulmonary thromboendarterectomy for chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension with a thrombus in the right ventricle.

    Chronic thromboembolism is a frequent cause of progressive hypertension and carries a poor prognosis. Medical treatment is not effective and surgery provides the only potential for a cure at present. We herein report a successful case of thromboendarterectomy treated via a median sternotomy with intermittent circulatory arrest. A 43-year-old man was admitted to our hospital complaining of progressive dyspnea, edema of the lower extremities, and a fever with an unknown origin. A subsequent definitive evaluation showed him to be suffering from surgically accessible chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension with a thrombus in the right ventricle. He underwent a pulmonary thromboendarterectomy and thrombectomy via a median sternotomy with intermittent circulatory arrest on November 24, 1994. Postoperatively he showed a marked improvement in his hemodynamic status and blood gas analysis. He has also returned to work with no trouble. Deep vein thrombosis appeared to be the pathogenesis of this case, but we could not find the origin of his unknown fever. He is currently being controlled by treatment with methylprednisolone as before.
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ranking = 13.074857950796
keywords = ventricle
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4/324. Cerebral embolism after mechanical thrombolysis of a clotted hemodialysis access.

    Clinically significant embolic complications after thrombolysis of clotted hemodialysis grafts are uncommon. Most of the concern has focused on the risks associated with pulmonary emboli. We report a case of a hemodialysis patient who developed a cerebral embolism after percutaneous graft thrombolysis who was found to have a patent foramen ovale and intermittent right-to-left shunt.
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ranking = 2.7012938867419
keywords = foramen, cerebral
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5/324. Atrial epicardial pacing with long stimulus to P wave interval in a patient with arrhythmogenic right ventricular dysplasia complicated by right atrial thrombosis.

    Atrial epicardial pacing with a long stimulus to P wave interval in a patient with arrhythmogenic right ventricular dysplasia complicated by right atrial thrombosis is discussed. arrhythmogenic right ventricular dysplasia (ARVD) is associated with a high incidence of malignant ventricular arrhythmias. Most patients with ARVD need antiarrhythmic drugs, catheter ablation, or an implantable cardioverter defibrillator. We report a patient with ARVD in whom effective treatment with sotalol caused severe, symptomatic sinus bradycardia requiring permanent pacing. Due to leftward displacement of the right ventricle and the presence of two thrombi in the right atrium, an epicardial atrial lead and AAI pacemaker were implanted. A long stimulus to P wave interval caused by severe dilatation of the right atrium was recorded. During a 6 months of follow-up on sotalol treatment there were neither ventricular tachycardia (VT) attacks nor pacing problems.
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ranking = 2.6149715901593
keywords = ventricle
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6/324. Multiple cerebral infarctions from nonbacterial thrombotic endocarditis mimicking cerebral vasculitis.

    Primary vasculitis of the central nervous system (PVCNS) is an uncommon disorder that can present with a variety of symptoms, making diagnosis and management difficult. We describe a case of cerebral infarction that occurred from nonbacterial thrombotic endocarditis (NBTE) and presented with clinical and radiologic imaging features that suggested PVCNS. The patient was a 58-year-old woman with left hemiparesis, aphasia, and episodic confusion. Magnetic resonance imaging of the brain demonstrated multifocal lesions consistent with infarction involving both cerebral hemispheres, and cerebral angiography showed changes consistent with vasculitis. Although brain biopsy findings were normal, the patient was treated for presumed vasculitis with cyclophosphamide and prednisone. Four months later respiratory failure secondary to polymicrobial pneumonia and adult respiratory distress syndrome developed, and she died. autopsy revealed multiple infarcts in the heart, lungs, right kidney, spleen, and brain. Multiple thrombotic platelet-fibrin vegetations consistent with NBTE were found on all cardiac valves. Examination of the brain revealed no evidence of active or healed vasculitis. cerebral angiography may show findings that suggest vasculitis, but it is not diagnostic, as several other conditions may cause similar changes. Nonbacterial thrombotic endocarditis may cause multiple cerebral infarctions and can be difficult to distinguish from vasculitis, as specific diagnostic tests for PVCNS are lacking.
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ranking = 12
keywords = cerebral
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7/324. Right ventricular thrombosis early after bidirectional Glenn shunt.

    Thrombosis in the right ventricle occurred early after bidirectional superior cavopulmonary shunt in 2 patients with pulmonary atresia with intact ventricular septum and major right ventricular coronary artery communication, and perioperative brain infarction occurred in 1 patient. Clinicians should be aware of the hazards of this potentially lethal complication, and transfusion of platelets and fresh plasma should be minimized. Although the hemodynamic state is good, echocardiography should be performed frequently and strict anticoagulation should be started as early as possible.
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ranking = 2.6149715901593
keywords = ventricle
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8/324. Multiple episodes of thrombosis in a patient with Becker muscular dystrophy with marked expression of utrophin on the muscle cell membrane.

    We previously reported a patient with Becker muscular dystrophy (BMD) who exhibited a benign clinical phenotype and marked expression of utrophin on the muscle cell membrane. The patient developed multiple episodes of thrombosis (middle cerebral and femoral arteries) in the course of the disease. We re-examined the biopsy muscle specimen from the patient immunohistochemically as to the expression of procoagulant or anticoagulant factors. We found a lower expression of thrombomodulin on the muscle cell membrane in the BMD patient compared with other BMD or Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) patients. Although utrophin up-regulation in muscle is thought to prevent the muscle wasting in dystrophin-deficient DMD or BMD, the data obtained in the present study indicate that up-regulated utrophin may have an unexpected influence on the function of the vascular or coagulation system.
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ranking = 1
keywords = cerebral
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9/324. Transaortic video-assisted removal of a left ventricular thrombus.

    A mobile and pedunculated left ventricular thrombus was developed after acute myocardial infarction in a 59-year-old man, and was successfully removed surgically through the aortic valve using a video-assisted thoracoscope. Transaortic video-assisted thoracoscopy greatly facilitated exposure of the interior of the left ventricle and preserved left ventricular function by avoiding ventriculotomy.
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ranking = 2.6149715901593
keywords = ventricle
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10/324. Bilateral renal infarction secondary to paradoxical embolism.

    Paradoxical embolism is an uncommon but increasingly reported cause of arterial embolic events. Involvement of the kidney is rarely reported. autopsy studies suggest, however, that embolic renal infarction is underdiagnosed antemortem. We report a case of bilateral, main renal artery occlusion and acute renal failure secondary to paradoxical embolism. Clinical and laboratory data at presentation were not suggestive of renal infarction. Support for the diagnosis of paradoxical embolism, which most commonly occurs across a patent foramen ovale, was made by contrast echocardiography, which provides a sensitive method for detecting right-to-left intracardiac shunts. The often subtle presentation of renal infarction suggests patients with peripheral or central arterial embolic events should be carefully observed for occult renal involvement. Contrast echocardiography should be performed when renal infarction occurs without a clear embolic source to evaluate for paradoxical embolism.
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ranking = 1.7012938867419
keywords = foramen
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