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11/54. A pituitary tumor in a patient with thyroid hormone resistance: a diagnostic dilemma.

    Resistance to thyroid hormone (RTH) is due to mutations in the beta-isoform of the thyroid hormone receptor (TR-beta). RTH patients display inappropriate secretion of thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH) from the hypothalamus and thyrotropin (TSH) from the anterior pituitary, despite elevated levels of thyroid hormone thyroxine (T4) and triiodothyronine (T3). Thyrotropin-secreting tumors are presumed to represent clonal expansion of abnormal cells. Because the diagnosis of TSH-secreting tumors tends to be delayed and curative surgical resection remains under 50%, early diagnosis is paramount. Current diagnostic strategies suggest that RTH patients are distinguishable from patients with TSH-secreting pituitary tumors by the use of standard laboratory tests and imaging. Here, we present a woman in whom the standard evaluation for inappropriate TSH secretion was insufficient to distinguish these entities. The patient had a low-normal TRH stimulation test and an unmeasurable alpha-glycoprotein subunit level; however, a pituitary magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) revealed an adenoma. More testing using a T3 suppression test supported a RTH diagnosis and a R438H mutation was found in the TR-beta gene. To our knowledge, this represents the first report of an apparently incidental pituitary adenoma in the setting of documented resistance to thyroid hormone. As such, it raises the question of whether RTH predisposes to pituitary hyperplasia and adenoma development. ( info)

12/54. Three Japanese patients from two families with generalized resistance to thyroid hormone with mutations in exon 9 of the thyroid hormone receptor beta gene.

    Resistance to thyroid hormone (RTH) is a genetic disorder caused by mutations in the thyroid hormone receptor (TR) beta gene. The mutations are clustered in two regions: exon 9 and exon 10. To date, only one patient with an exon 9 mutation has been reported in japan. We herein report three patients from two Japanese families with RTH and mutations in exon 9. A 52-year-old woman and her 18-year-old daughter, both with inappropriate secretion of TSH (SITSH) were diagnosed simultaneously with generalized RTH. Molecular analysis revealed a G345D mutation. An 11-year-old girl with SITSH, whose only manifestation was a goiter, had an R338W mutation, which is frequently associated with pituitary RTH. Thus, RTH with mutations in exon 9 of the TR beta gene is not so rare in japan. ( info)

13/54. Resistance to thyroid hormone does not abrogate the transient thyrotoxicosis associated with gestation: report of a case.

    We report the occurrence of transient thyrotoxicosis during pregnancy in a subject with resistance to thyroid hormone. Before pregnancy, the subject was euthyroid, with normal serum TSH and elevated levels of free T(3) and free T(4) caused by a mutation in the TRbeta gene (R243Q). Beginning at the fourth week of gestation serum levels of free T(3) and T(4) increased in parallel with an increase in hCG. At 6-7 wk gestation she manifested hypermetabolic features, with mild nausea and vomiting. Peak levels of serum hCG and thyroid hormone concentrations were attained at 12 wk gestation, when serum TSH was fully suppressed. In the following weeks of gestation, thyroid hormone levels declined, with amelioration of the symptoms. A baby boy also affected with resistance to thyroid hormone harboring the same TRbeta gene mutation was born by normal vaginal delivery. ( info)

14/54. Thyroid resistance to TSH complicated by autoimmune thyroiditis.

    In this report we describe a 47-yr-old woman who was referred to our department for elevated serum TSH associated with normal free thyroid hormone levels, suggesting subclinical hypothyroidism. When first seen she was clinically euthyroid, and her thyroid gland was normal in size both at palpation and by ultrasound. The ultrasound of the thyroid showed a normoechogenic pattern. serum thyroid hormone levels were confirmed to be within the normal range, whereas the serum TSH concentration was moderately elevated (13.4 microU/ml). Tests for antithyroperoxidase, antithyroglobulin, and anti-TSH receptor antibodies gave negative results. The only son of the proband, a clinically euthyroid 23-yr-old man, had a slightly elevated serum TSH concentration (5.2 microU/ml) with normal free thyroid hormone levels. The entire coding regions of the TSH receptor gene were sequenced in the proband, the son, and the father of the son. Genetic analysis in the proband showed a homozygous inactivating mutation of the TSH receptor. The mutation consisted of the substitution of an alanine in place of proline at position 162 in the extracellular portion of the receptor. The son was heterozygous for Pro(162)Ala. Only the wild-type sequence was found in the father. Both the proband and her son were considered to have compensated TSH resistance and were not treated. After 2 yr of follow-up, new thyroid tests were performed in the proband and showed a marked increase in the serum TSH concentration (61 microU/ml) compared with the initially observed value; serum free T(4) and T(3) levels were in the low normal range. At that time, tests for antithyroglobulin and antithyroperoxidase antibodies gave positive results, and thyroid echography showed a gland of normal size, but with a diffuse hypoechogenic pattern. In conclusion, we describe the first case of compensated TSH resistance evolving to mild hypothyroidism due to the appearance of a chronic autoimmune thyroiditis. ( info)

15/54. Extreme thyroid hormone resistance in a patient with a novel truncated TR mutant.

    Resistance to thyroid hormone (RTH) is a syndrome in which patients have elevated thyroid hormone (TH) levels and decreased sensitivity to its action. We describe a child with extreme RTH and a severe phenotype. A 22-month-old female presented to the NIH with goiter, growth retardation, short stature, and deafness. Additionally, the patient had hypotonia, mental retardation, visual impairment, and a history of seizures. brain magnetic resonance imaging showed evidence of demyelination and bilateral ventricular enlargement. The patient had markedly elevated free T3 and free T4 levels of more than 2000 pg/dl (normal, 230-420 pg/dl) and more than 64 pmol/liter (normal, 10.3-20.6 pmol/liter), respectively, and TSH of 6.88 mU/liter (normal, 0.6-6.3 mU/liter). These are the highest TH levels reported for a heterozygous RTH patient. A T3 stimulation test confirmed the diagnosis of RTH in the pituitary and peripheral tissues. Molecular analyses of the patient's genomic dna by PCR identified a single base deletion in exon 10 of her TRbeta gene that resulted in a frameshift and early stop codon. This, in turn, encoded a truncated receptor that lacked the last 20 amino acids. Cotransfection studies showed that the mutant TR was transcriptionally inactive even in the presence of 10(-6) M T3 and had strong dominant negative activity over the wild-type receptor. It is likely that the severely defective TRbeta mutant contributed to the extreme RTH phenotype and resistance in our patient. ( info)

16/54. Resistance to thyroid hormone in a patient without thyroid hormone receptor mutations.

    Resistance to thyroid hormone (RTH) is a clinical syndrome characterized by elevated serum thyroid hormone (TH) levels, unsuppressed thyrotropin (TSH) levels, and tissue hyposensitivity to TH. In almost all cases, the genetic basis of RTH lies in mutation of one of the two TH receptor beta (TRbeta) alleles. Recently, patients from several families with phenotypic manifestations of RTH in the absence of TR mutations have been described. We report a case of a 31-year-old woman who presented with goiter, tachycardia, elevated TH levels, unsuppressed TSH, and "inappropriately normal" levels of peripheral TH action markers. In two separate clinical evaluations, the patient exhibited typical clinical and biochemical evidence for peripheral and pituitary RTH. Surprisingly, reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) of full-length TRalpha and TRbeta mRNAs, and genomic PCR using primers flanking exons encoding the carboxy-terminal region of TRbeta failed to demonstrate mutations in the TRalpha or TRbeta genes. It is likely that defects in the regulation of TR genes or mutations in transcriptional cofactors involved in TR signaling account for this patient's phenotype. ( info)

17/54. Genetic analyses and evaluation of peripheral parameters of thyroid hormone action for the differential diagnosis of RTH. A novel heterozygous missense mutation (M334T) discovered.

    Resistance to thyroid hormone (RTH) is a rare disease characterized by goiter and elevated free thyroid hormone (TH) levels in the presence of detectable concentrations of TSH. Most RTH patients harbor mutations in the ligand binding domain (LBD) of thyroid hormone receptor beta (TRbeta) gene, without a clear correlation between genotype and phenotype. Clinical, biochemical and genetic analyses were performed in several members of one family, because the index case presented with elevated free TH, measurable TSH and no hyperthyroid manifestations, but with a pituitary lesion at MRI. High free TH levels and TSH concentrations in the normal range were found also in 4 relatives. The presence of euthyroidism in all patients together with peripheral parameters of TH action in the normal range led to the diagnosis of generalized RTH (GRTH). In the five affected members, the genetic analysis revealed a novel heterozygous missense mutation at codon 334 (M334T). A different mutation at codon 334 was previously described in association with selective pituitary resistance to thyroid hormone (PRTH). Therefore, we confirm that substitutions at methionine 334 are critical for the structural integrity of TRbeta LBD. The association of different phenotypes with substitutions affecting the same codon is another contribution confirming that RTH phenotype does not generally depend upon the site of the mutation in the LBD of TRbeta1. ( info)

18/54. atrial fibrillation and mitral prolapse in a subject affected by Refetoff syndrome.

    Inappropriate secretion of TSH (IST) refers to a heterogeneous group of syndromes in which patients show unsuppressed TSH levels in spite of high serum free thyroid hormone concentrations. It has been recognised that IST can be due to both thyroid hormone resistance (RTH) and pituitary TSH-secreting tumours. The former can be generalised (GRTH) or pituitary (PRTH) if the resistance is more severe in the pituitary than in the remaining tissues. This case report describes a peculiar coexistence of atrial fibrillation and mitral valve prolapse in a patient affected by generalized resistance to thyroid hormone. This finding is suggestive for a major and almost physiological sensitivity of the myocardium to the thyroid hormones activity which in the course of years may determine the modifications responsible for the pathologies described. ( info)

19/54. Neonatal thyrotoxicosis and maternal infertility in thyroid hormone resistance due to a mutation in the TRbeta gene (M313T).

    We report two unusual cases of resistance to thyroid hormone (RTH) in one family. The first case, a male infant, had clinical features of thyrotoxicosis in the neonatal period. In the fourth week of life weight gain was poor despite a daily intake of standard infant formula almost double the infant's estimated requirements. At this time serum free T4 (fT4) was 60.7 pmol/l (Normal range [NR] 11-25 pmol/l) and TSH was inappropriately normal at 1.8 mU/l (NR 0.3-4.0 mU/l). The infant responded clinically and biochemically to propylthiouracil (PTU) at a dose of 10 mg/kg/day. Following 27 days of treatment serum fT4 was 22.6 pmol/l and TSH had risen to 24.9 mU/l. As the infant was thriving treatment was discontinued. The infant, now aged 6 months old, remains clinically euthyroid and developmentally normal off treatment. The infant's mother, from whom he had inherited a mutation of the thyroid receptor beta (TRbeta) gene (M313T), presented earlier with secondary infertility and clinical features of thyrotoxicosis. Treatment with PTU restored her fertility and she spontaneously conceived. In the subsequent pregnancy, clinical and biochemical features of RTH improved, and she gave birth to a small but healthy female infant. In the next pregnancy, resulting in the birth of the affected male infant, clinical and biochemical features of RTH worsened, and high doses of PTU were required to maintain a clinically euthyroid state. To our knowledge, these are the first case reports of RTH associated with added features of a hypermetabolic state in infancy and secondary infertility. ( info)

20/54. Successful therapy with L-T4 in a 5 year-old boy with generalized thyroid hormone resistance.

    Resistance to thyroid hormone (RTH) is a rare dominantly inherited disorder caused by mutations in the thyroid hormone receptor beta gene which lead to impaired tissue responsiveness to thyroid hormone (TH). RTH is characterized by elevated free thyroid hormone and unsuppressed thyrotropin (TSH) levels. Two types of the disorder have been recognized: selective pituitary resistance and generalized resistance to TH (GRTH). Triiodothyroacetic acid has been used in patients showing hypermetabolism, and L-T4 treatment in high doses has been suggested in GRTH if patients have signs of clinical hypothyroidism such as growth retardation and developmental delay. The outcome of long-term treatment of GRTH with L-T4 has not yet been reported. We report a 5 year-old boy who presented with severe growth retardation, fatigue and speech delay. He had hyperactivity despite feeling tired easily. Elevated TH levels with unsuppressed TSH and delayed bone age were determined by laboratory evaluation and he was diagnosed as GRTH. There was no clinicical evidence of hypermetabolism. We could not demonstrate any mutation in thyroid receptor beta1, beta2 or alpha gene of this patient and his parents. L-T4 treatment was started at conventional doses (6 microg/kg), and after 3 months of treatment T4 and TSH levels were suppressed successfully. In 12 months of treatment, no side effects were detected and surprisingly clinical symptoms improved without requirement for high doses of L-T4. ( info)
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