Cases reported "Thyroid Neoplasms"

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1/240. False-positive result of a total-body scan caused by benign thyroidal tissue after I-131 ablation.

    This case report illustrates a false-positive result of an I-131 total-body scan caused by abnormal, noncancerous thyroid tissue. A 39-year-old woman underwent an open biopsy and thyroidectomy for a papillary thyroid carcinoma. She was treated by ablation with 150.8 mCi I-131. A follow-up total-body scan revealed a solitary focus of increased activity near the midline at the upper border of the larynx that was subsequently excised. Histologic analysis indicated a fragment of thyroid tissue with chronic inflammation, fibrosis, and squamous metaplasia. No evidence of thyroid carcinoma was present. Hypofunctioning or nonfunctioning residual tissue within the thyroglossal duct may have been suppressed under euthyroid conditions, protecting it from ablation. This tissue may have become stimulated by the high thyroid-stimulating hormone levels, accumulating I-131 and producing a false-positive result of the scan.
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2/240. Identification of thyroid hormone residues on serum thyroglobulin: a clue to the source of circulating thyroglobulin in thyroid diseases.

    thyroglobulin (Tg) present in the serum of normal individuals and patients with thyroid disorders could be partly newly synthesized non-iodinated Tg and partly Tg containing iodine and hormone residues originating from the lumen of thyroid follicles. With the aim of examining the contribution of the latter source of Tg to the elevation of serum Tg concentration in thyroid pathophysiological situations, we devised a procedure to identify thyroxine (T4) and tri-iodothyronine (T3) residues on Tg from unfractionated serum. A two-step method, basedon (i)adsorption of Tg on an immobilized anti-human Tg (hTg) monoclonal antibody (mAb) and (ii)recognition of hormone residues on adsorbed Tg by binding of radioiodinated anti-T4 mAb and anti-T3 mAb, was used to analyze serum Tg from patients with either Graves' disease (GD), subacute thyroiditis (ST) or metastatic differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC). Purified hTg preparations with different iodine and hormone contents were used as reference. adsorption of purified Tg and serum Tg on immobilized anti-hTg mAb ranged between 85 and 90% over a wide concentration range. Labeled anti-T4 and anti-T3 mAbs bound to adsorbed purified Tg in amounts related to its iodine content. Tg adsorbed from six out of six sera from ST exhibited anti-T4 and anti-T3 mAb binding activities. In contrast, significant mAb binding was only observed in one out of eight sera from untreated GD patients and in 1 out of 13 sera from patients with DTC. The patient with DTC, whose serum Tg contained T4 and T3, represented a case of hyperthyroidism caused by a metastatic follicular carcinoma. In conclusion, we have identified, for the first time, T4 and T3 residues on circulating Tg. The presence of Tg with hormone residues in serum is occasional in GD and DTC but is a common and probably distinctive feature of ST.
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3/240. Cytologic diagnosis of a solitary brain metastasis from papillary carcinoma of the thyroid. A case report.

    BACKGROUND: Papillary carcinoma of the thyroid metastasizes to the brain in rare instances. In published series and case reports of metastatic papillary thyroid carcinoma, diagnosis of central nervous system (CNS) metastases has been determined by histologic methods. We present a case of papillary carcinoma metastatic to brain diagnosed by cytologic methods. CASE: A 43-year-old female, initially diagnosed at age 12 with papillary carcinoma of the thyroid metastatic to regional lymph nodes and lung, presented with head aches of increasing frequency and severity. A computed tomography scan confirmed a 1-cm nodule in the right inferior frontal lobe of the brain. For clinical reasons, the patient was followed with serial imaging for five years. At age 48 there was significant progression of the CNS disease, and the patient underwent stereotactic biopsy with drainage of cyst fluid. Cytologic examination of the cyst fluid and immunocytochemical studies confirmed the typical features of papillary thyroid carcinoma, including papillary clusters of cells with finely granular chromatin, micronucleoli, nuclear grooves and an associated psammoma body. CONCLUSION: Neurocytology is a useful technique in the examination of cystic lesions of the brain and may be the sole technique for determination of diagnosis.
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4/240. An unusual complication of minitracheostomy.

    A 72-year-old woman had a minitracheostomy inserted for sputum retention. This was undertaken by a relatively junior resident who opted to use an early model minitracheostomy kit Minitrach II. The following day the patients condition deteriorated and intubation was warranted, at which time it was apparent to senior staff that the minitracheostomy had been malpositioned. Ten days later, formal tracheostomy was performed under general anaesthesia. After incision, an abscess in the thyroid gland was found. histology subsequently revealed a Hurthle cell tumour of the thyroid. Thyroid abscess is exceedingly rare. It typically occurs in abnormal thyroid tissue and with a focus on infection. The combination of Hurthle cell adenoma and a foreign body (the minitracheostomy) was evidently causative in this instance. This complication of minitracheostomy insertion has not to our knowledge, previously been reported.
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5/240. CD30 positive (non-anaplastic) peripheral T-cell lymphoma of the thyroid gland.

    Primary non-Hodgkin's lymphoma of the thyroid gland are infrequent tumors. They almost exclusively derive from B cells of mucosa-associated lymphatic tissue and only a very small minority of them is represented by T cell lymphomas. CD30 molecule, other than in Hodgkin's and Redd-Sternberg' cells, is strictly associated with anaplastic large cell lymphoma and ALK lymphomas, the latter being identified by the monoclonal antibody ALK1. We report a case of CD30-positive non-anaplastic (ALK1-negative) peripheral T cell lymphoma of the thyroid gland and speculate on aspects concerning diagnosis and the morphologic and immunohistochemical findings.
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6/240. Toxic adenoma and papillary thyroid carcinoma in a patient with Graves' disease.

    A case of a very rare association of toxic adenoma and papillary carcinoma with Graves' disease is presented. A 34-year-old woman developed Graves' disease with mild ophthalmopathy. An ultrasound revealed diffuse thyroid enlargement with a hypoechoic pattern and a hypoechoic nodule with regular edges of 1.6 cm in diameter at the lower pole of the left lobe. A thyroid 131I scintiscan showed a diffuse and homogeneous 131I distribution. The 131I uptake (RAIU) was elevated. One year later, while still on a low dose of methimazole, the patient had a recurrence of hyperthyroidism following an iodine load from a contrast agent. A further thyroid ultrasound confirmed the previously described pattern but showed a new hypoechoic nodule of 1.1 cm with irregular edges in the left lobe. A thyroid 131I scintiscan this time demonstrated a hyperactive area localised in the larger nodule and a lower diffuse uptake of the remaining tissue. Because of the worsening of the symptoms of hyperthyroidism, the patient had a left lobectomy. On histological examination, the larger nodule was well encapsulated and showed the characteristics of a hyperfunctioning follicular adenoma. The smaller nodule was a typically unencapsulated papillary carcinoma. Several other microfoci of papillary carcinoma were also found in the adjacent tissue. Completion of thyroidectomy was therefore performed, followed by 131I ablative therapy and thyroxine suppressive treatment. This observation suggests that the chronic abnormal stimulation of the thyroid gland by the thyroid-stimulating antibody (TSAb) may facilitate the neoplastic transformation of the thyrocytes in individuals with a critical genetic background.
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7/240. Papillary carcinoma in a thyroglossal duct: case report.

    CONTEXT: Thyroglossal duct cysts are the most common congenital cervical abnormality in childhood. Malignant lesions are rare in thyroglossal duct cysts (about 1%). OBJECTIVE: To report a case of papillary carcinoma in thyroglossal duct cysts. DESIGN: Case report. CASE REPORT: The patient was a 21-year-old female with a four-month history of an anterior midline neck mass but without other symptoms. The physical examination revealed a 4.0 cm diameter, smooth, painless, cystic nodule at the level of the hyoid bone. The thyroid gland was normal by palpation and no neck lymph nodes were found. Indirect laryngoscopy, fine-needle biopsy aspiration and cervical ultrasound were normal and compatible with the physical findings of a thyroglossal duct cyst. The patient underwent surgery with this diagnosis, under general anesthesia, and the mass was resected by the usual Sistrunk procedure. There were no local signs of invasion of the tissue surrounding the cyst or duct at surgery. The patient was discharged within 24 hours. Histopathological examination of the specimen showed a 3.5 x 3.0 x 3.0 cm thyroglossal cyst, partially filled by a solid 1.0 x 0.5 cm brownish tissue. Histological sections showed a papillary carcinoma in the thyroid tissue of a thyroglossal cyst, with normal thyroid tissue at the boundary of the carcinoma. There was no capsule invasion and the margins were negative. The follow-up of the patient consisted of head and neck examinations, ultrasonography of the surgical region and thyroid, and total body scintigraphy. The patient has been followed up for two years with no further evidence of disease.
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8/240. Recombinant human thyrotropin for the diagnosis and treatment of a highly functional metastatic struma ovarii.

    The optimal treatment of metastatic thyroid cancer that produces high amounts of thyroid hormone has not been well defined. A 46-yr-old woman presented with a follicular thyroid carcinoma arising from a struma ovarii with hepatic metastases. After the removal of both the struma and the thyroid gland, the liver metastases showed evidence of a high degree of hormonogenesis. brain, chest, abdomen, and bone imaging was negative for additional metastases. Because iodine uptake by most thyroid carcinomas is quite low in the absence of high levels of ambient TSH, we used recombinant human TSH (rhTSH) (Thyrogen) to achieve a concentration of 131I activity in the tumor high enough for a significant cytotoxic effect. After rhTSH administration (0.9 mg im daily for 2 consecutive days), a 131I diagnostic whole body scan confirmed the existence of 17 discrete hepatic foci of 131I uptake. To calculate the amount of 131I that would deliver an absorbed radiation dose that would be optimally cytotoxic to the metastases (>8000 rad/lesion) and not to the normal liver, we performed lesion dosimetry. Analysis of dosimetric data showed that 15 of 17 lesions would receive an adequate radiation dose following the administration of 65 mCi of 131I. Additionally, we performed whole body dosimetry to assure that this dose would not cause bone marrow toxicity. The patient was reevaluated 6 months after therapy; the liver metastases showed significant, but partial, response. In conclusion, we used the combination of rhTSH with lesional and whole body dosimetry for the treatment of highly functional metastases from follicular thyroid carcinoma arising within a struma ovarii. This strategy can be applied to determine a safe and effective dose of 131I for the treatment of any thyroid cancer metastases that produce enough TH to preclude stimulation of endogenous pituitary TSH secretion.
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9/240. Detection of medullary carcinoma of thyroid, with liver metastasis, using 99mTc DMSA(V) scintigraphy.

    A sixty year old female referred for thyroid and liver scintigraphy had a clinical history of progressive swelling in the neck with hepatomegaly. A large cold area was detected in the right thyroid lobe using 99mTc pertechnetate and in the right lobe of liver using 99mTc phytate. Subsequent whole body scan with 99mTC DMSA(V) showed avid tracer uptake in right lobe of thyroid and liver. Aspiration cytology of thyroid and liver showed medullary carcinoma of thyroid with its metastasis in liver. Histopathology following thyroidectomy confirmed the diagnosis. Thus 99mTc pentavalent DMSA contributes specificity to diagnose medullary carcinoma of thyroid and metastatic lesions.
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10/240. Pseudomalabsorption of levothyroxine: a case report.

    A 51-year-old woman who had been treated with levothyroxine sodium because of hypothyroidism after total thyroidectomy for thyroidal cancer was admitted to our hospital for persistent hypothyroidism despite large dose administration of levothyroxine (600 microg/day). The patient complained of severe general fatigue and body weight gain. Free thyroxine, free triiodothyronine and thyrotropin levels were 0.97 ng/dl, 1.55 pg/ml and 24.51 microU/ml, respectively, under oral administration of levothyroxine. Levothyroxine loading test performed by liquid form, pulverized tablets via nasogastric tube and intravenous administration revealed no evidence of malabsorption or metabolic disorder of levothyroxine, although oral intake of tablets was ineffective due to her factitiousness. We report here a possible case of "pseudomalabsorption of levothyroxine" to emphasize the clinical recognition of this disorder in patients with resistant hypothyroidism.
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