Cases reported "Thyroid Neoplasms"

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1/13. multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2a with the identical somatic mutation in medullary thyroid carcinoma and pheochromocytoma without germline mutation at the corresponding site in the RET proto-oncogene.

    A germline mutation either in exon 10 or 11 of the RET proto-oncogene is found in the majority of patients with multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2a (men 2A). A 41-year-old female patient was referred for further evaluation of incidentally discovered right adrenal tumor. She had bilateral adrenal pheochromocytomas and medullary thyroid carcinomas detected by endocrinological and radiological examination, and diagnosed as men 2A. Molecular genetic testing of the RET exons 10 and 11 exhibited the identical somatic missense mutation at codon 634 in both tumors but did not confirm germline mutations in the corresponding sites. Possible mechanisms for tumorigenesis in this patient are discussed.
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ranking = 1
keywords = tumorigenesis
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2/13. multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1: atypical presentation, clinical course, and genetic analysis of multiple tumors.

    multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 (MEN1) is characterized by the development of endocrine tumors of the parathyroid and pituitary glands, pancreas, and duodenum. Less frequently occurring tumors associated with MEN1 include non-endocrine tumors such as lipomas and angiofibromas. An increased incidence of thyroid neoplasms, leiomyomas, adrenal cortical hyperplasia, hepatic focal nodular hyperplasia, and renal angiomyolipoma has been noted in the MEN1 population. The pathogenesis of non-neuroendocrine tumors in MEN1 is unknown. We report a complex clinical course and a detailed morphologic and genetic analysis of a series of tumors that developed in a patient with MEN1. All tumors were microdissected and analyzed for loss of heterozygosity of the MEN1 gene. A germline mutation of the MEN1 gene was detected, and deletions of the MEN1 gene were consistently detected in multiple neuroendocrine tumors involving the parathyroid glands and the pancreas and a hepatic neuroendocrine tumor metastasis, as predicted by Knudson's "two hit" hypothesis. Two hits of the MEN1 gene were also detected in esophageal leiomyoma tissue, suggesting that tumorigenesis was directly related to the patient's underlying MEN1. In contrast, follicular thyroid adenoma, papillary thyroid carcinoma, hepatic focal nodular hyperplasia, and adrenal cortical hyperplasia consistently showed retained heterozygosity of the MEN1 gene with flanking markers and an intragenic marker. Therefore, these tumors appear to develop along pathogenetic pathways that are different from classical MEN1-associated tumors.
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ranking = 1
keywords = tumorigenesis
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3/13. Balanced translocation (3;7)(p25;q34): another mechanism of tumorigenesis in follicular thyroid carcinoma?

    Alterations of 3p are the most frequently observed changes in follicular thyroid carcinomas. Loss of 3p25-pter has been speculated to be a critical event in the malignant transformation of a subset of thyroid follicular neoplasms. The present report describes a minimally invasive follicular thyroid carcinoma (FTC) with a balanced t(3;7)(p25;q34) and dic(15;22)(p11;p11) as the only abnormalities. The alterations were present in all metaphases analyzed and were demonstrated by G-banding, spectral karyotyping (SKY), and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). This study represents the second case of FTC where 3p25 is involved in a balanced translocation. The findings support the existence of a gene locus in this region which is involved in the tumorigenesis of thyroid carcinoma.
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ranking = 5
keywords = tumorigenesis
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4/13. hyperthyroidism in a patient with TSH-producing pituitary adenoma coexisting with thyroid papillary adenocarcinoma.

    A 27-year-old woman who presented with a left thyroid nodule was found to have hyperthyroidism caused by a syndrome of inappropriate secretion of TSH. The levels of free T3, free T4 and TSH were 9.50 pg/mL, 4.05 ng/dL and 2.16 microU/mL, respectively. magnetic resonance imaging of the head revealed a pituitary macroadenoma. The TSH response to TRH stimulation was normal and responses of other anterior pituitary hormones to stimulation tests were also normally preserved. Administration of octreotide with iodine successfully reversed hyperthyroidism prior to total resection of pituitary adenoma, which was followed by hemithyroidectomy of the left thyroid five months later. Histologically, the resected pituitary adenoma was a TSH-producing adenoma (TSH-oma) and the thyroid nodule was a papillary adenocarcinoma. serum TSH diminished to undetectable levels immediately following pituitary adenomectomy but gradually normalized over nine months. Coexistence of a TSH-oma with thyroid cancer is very rare and only two similar cases have previously been documented. This combination raises the possibility that TSH may be involved in tumorigenesis in the thyroid gland.
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ranking = 1
keywords = tumorigenesis
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5/13. Familial adenomatous polyposis associated with multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1-related tumors and thyroid carcinoma: a case report with clinicopathologic and molecular analyses.

    We describe a sporadic case with familial adenomatous polyposis, multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 (MEN1)-related tumors (an endocrine cell tumor of the pancreas and bilateral parathyroid tumors), and a papillary thyroid carcinoma. To clarify how mutations of the adenomatous polyposis coli ( APC ) gene and the MEN1 gene, responsible for familial adenomatous polyposis and MEN1, respectively, might have contributed to tumorigenesis in this case, we studied germline mutations in both genes and loss of heterozygosity at their genetic loci in multiple lesions. In addition, we performed immunohistochemistry for beta-catenin, associated with the function of the APC gene. A germline mutation was found in the APC gene but not in the MEN1 gene. Normal allelic loss at the APC gene locus was observed in bilateral parathyroid tumors. Immunohistochemical staining of beta-catenin demonstrated accumulation in the cytoplasm in addition to membrane staining in all analyzed tumors and a strong nuclear reaction in the endocrine cell tumor of the pancreas. The presence of normal allelic deletions of the APC gene in bilateral parathyroid tumors and nuclear staining of beta-catenin in the pancreatic tumor in addition to the germline mutations suggests that functional loss of the APC gene played an important role not only in familial adenomatous polyposis but also in the MEN1-related tumors in this case.
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ranking = 1
keywords = tumorigenesis
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6/13. Anaplastic thyroid cancer evolved from papillary carcinoma: demonstration of anaplastic transformation by means of the inter-simple sequence repeat polymerase chain reaction.

    BACKGROUND: In thyroid tumors, the coexistence of well- and poorly differentiated tumor types has led to the hypothesis that poorly differentiated thyroid tumors develop from well-differentiated thyroid tumors. By evaluating the genomic instability of histologically distinct but coexisting tumor foci, this study aimed to develop an improved understanding of thyroid tumorigenesis and tumor evolution. DESIGN: laser capture microdissection (LCM) was carried out on archival formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded sections from a tumor containing foci of classic papillary thyroid cancer and anaplastic thyroid cancer. dna was extracted from each microdissected tumor focus. In addition, cryopreserved bulk normal and neoplastic thyroid tissue underwent dna extraction. All dna samples were subsequently evaluated for genomic instability by means of inter-simple sequence repeat polymerase chain reaction. RESULTS: The LCM dna from each archival paraffin-embedded tumor focus demonstrated unique patterns of banding as compared with the cryopreserved tumor and normal tissue dna. Thus, intratumoral variability in genomic instability was observed. Comparison of inter-simple sequence repeat polymerase chain reaction patterns of LCM dna from adjacent foci of papillary and anaplastic tumors showed conserved genome alterations. CONCLUSIONS: At the genome level, thyroid tumors may be highly heterogeneous. The intratumoral histologic heterogeneity observed in thyroid neoplasms reflects genetically heterogeneous underlying tumor cell populations that are demonstrated by the observed differences in their rates and extents of genomic instability. The conserved genomic alterations in the microdissected papillary and anaplastic foci suggest intratumoral evolution, with transformation of a preexisting papillary tumor to anaplastic carcinoma.
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ranking = 1
keywords = tumorigenesis
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7/13. Thyrotoxic adenoma followed by atypical hyperthyroidism due to struma ovarii: clinical and genetic studies.

    OBJECTIVE: Atypical forms of hyperthyroidism represent a diagnostic challenge for clinicians. struma ovarii is an ovarian teratoma and constitutes a rare cause of ectopic thyroidal hormonal production. We describe a case of struma ovarii that combined two different sources of hyperthyroidism in the same patient and report genetic studies in order to contribute a better understanding of the autonomy and tumorigenesis of the struma ovarii. CASE REPORT: A 73-year-old nulliparous woman presented a thyroid toxic adenoma that was successfully treated with 10 mCi radioiodine. Unexpectedly, a new onset of hyperthyroidism prompted us to look for a second etiology. A whole-body scan with (123)I detected a pelvic hyperfixation suggesting struma ovarii, and a thyroid differentiated left ovarian teratoma 3 cm in size was surgically removed. We screened for mutations of thyroid-stimulating hormone receptor and Gs-alpha protein genes, as these mutations are common in thyroid adenomas. We did not identify any mutations. Androgen receptor study demonstrated a monoclonal status. comparative genomic hybridization did not reveal any chromosomal abnormality. However, loss of heterozygosity analysis showed several structural abnormalities, compared with the majority of benign ovarian teratomas, which show a normal karyotype. CONCLUSIONS: This is the first well-documented report of thyrotoxic struma ovarii revealed after treatment of a single thyroid toxic adenoma. We have shown in this case that struma ovarii originates from a single germ cell, and, albeit benign, this tumor presents several chromosomal abnormalities. struma ovarii-induced hyperthyroidism is likely to be mediated by mechanisms different from those of the classical thyroid toxic adenoma.
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ranking = 1
keywords = tumorigenesis
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8/13. autopsy case of prostate cancer with multiple endocrine neoplasia 2A.

    We describe an autopsy case of a 65-year-old man with prostate cancer accompanied by multiple endocrine neoplasia 2A (men 2A), including malignant pheochromocytomas, thyroid medullary carcinomas and parathyroid hyperplasia. Metastatic lesions from the prostate primary were identified using immunohistochemistry for prostate specific antigen within both primary and metastatic pheochromocytomas in the liver. To investigate the affinity of prostate cancer for pheochromocytoma cells, immunohistochemistry was carried out using a number of antibodies and both tumors were positive for N-cadherin. Interestingly, pheochromocytomas, thyroid medullary carcinomas and prostate cancer were all positive for the anti-RET antibody. The immunohistochemical results suggest that the cell affinity may, in part, result from cell-cell adhesion via N-cadherin. Although prostate cancer is rarely associated with men, RET activation may have participated in the tumorigenesis of this case.
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ranking = 1
keywords = tumorigenesis
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9/13. Cytogenetic biclonality corresponding to multiphasic differentiation in an atypical thyroid adenoma.

    Cytogenetic aberrations have been described in about 30% of benign thyroid tumors, but their role for tumorigenesis or progression has not yet been elucidated. We describe the cytogenetic analyses in a thyroid adenoma with two different clonal cytogenetic stemlines: 45,XX,der(1)t(1;14)(p13;q11.2-q(13),t(5;12)(q11.2;q24),del(9)(q12),- 10,der(11)t(11;?;19)(p15;q13),der(14)t(14;15)(q11.2-q13;q23),del(15)(q23 ), der(15)t(9;15)(q12;p10),der(19)t(10;19)(q11.2;q13)/46,X,?inv(x),?inv(3) (p21q29),t(3;8)(q26;q12). Histologic examination revealed an atypical follicular thyroid adenoma containing microfollicular, follicular, trabecular-solid, and oncocytic components. There may be a direct relation between the different cytogenetic stemlines and the histologic diversity of the tumor. Thyroid tumors with complex karyotypes involving the 19q13 breakpoint may represent advanced stages of karyotypic evolution and therefore warrant an extensive clinical follow-up.
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ranking = 1
keywords = tumorigenesis
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10/13. A possible role for Epstein-Barr virus in tumorigenesis after immunosuppression in cases of renal transplantation.

    Eight secondary malignancies developing after renal transplantation were investigated in terms of a possible role of the Epstein-Barr virus (EBV). In five cases, four gastric cancers and one colonic cancer, the presence of EBV was proven by the polymerase chain reaction (PCR), all four gastric lesions being confirmed to have a massive EBV infection by in situ hybridization. Two cases demonstrated monoclonal infection with EBV, as indicated by a single band of the lymphocyte-defined membrane antigen tandem-repeat gene using PCR, and were immunohistochemically positive for the latent membrane protein 1. Our series suggests that gastrointestinal cancer predominates as a secondary malignancy in states of induced severe immunosuppression, and that EBV may play an important role in tumorigenesis as an oncovirus.
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ranking = 5
keywords = tumorigenesis
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