Cases reported "Thyroid Nodule"

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1/20. Minimally invasive, totally gasless video-assisted thyroid lobectomy.

    BACKGROUND: neck surgery is one of the newest fields of application of video-assisted surgery. We developed a technique for minimally invasive, totally gasless video-assisted thyroid lobectomy. methods: The procedure was accepted by a patient with a follicular nodule of the left lobe of the thyroid. We performed a left thyroid lobectomy through a single 20-mm horizontal skin incision, just above the sternal notch, after inserting a 5-mm 30 degrees laparoscope, by using both endoscopic and conventional instrumentation. RESULTS: The recurrent laryngeal nerve and the parathyroid glands were easily identified and preserved. The operating time was 2.5 hours. No complication occurred. The postoperative stay was 2 days. The cosmetic result was excellent CONCLUSIONS: We concluded that our technique is feasible and safe. This makes us optimistic about the future of minimally invasive, video-assisted thyroid surgery.
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2/20. Coincidence of hot thyroid nodules and primary hyperparathyroidism.

    hyperthyroidism is frequently associated with hypercalcemia, which usually subsides after successful treatment of hyperthyroidism. Moreover, thyroid nodules are frequently detected by preoperative thyroid ultrasound in patients with primary hyperparathyroidism. Sensitised by the observation of a patient with coexisting hyperthyroidism and hyperparathyroidism we prospectively evaluated thyroid nodules in euthyroid patients with hyperparathyroidism by thyroid scintigraphy. Whereas the first patient with hyperparathyroidism was hyperthyroid the subsequent four patients with hyperparathyroidism and thyroid nodules had normal fT3 and fT4. Two patients had hypercalcemia and nephroureterolithiasis. Three patients suffered from hypercalcemia and bone pain due to osteoporosis. In the hyperthyroid patient hypercalcemia persisted after euthyroidism was achieved intact parathyroid hormone was found to be elevated. Subsequently, thyroid nodules, detected by preoperative ultrasound in four euthyroid patients with primary hyperparathyroidism, were identified as compensated hot nodules by thyroid scintigraphy. All patients underwent combined subtotal thyroidectomy and parathyroid resection. histology showed hyperplastic parathyroid glands in one patient and a single parathyroid adenoma in four cases. Postoperatively calcium and PTH levels returned to normal and TSH levels increased in all patients. Persistence of hypercalcemia after successful treatment of hyperthyroidism should be reason for the determination of parathyroid hormone. Thyroid nodules detected by preoperative ultrasound in patients with hyperparathyroidism living in areas of iodine deficiency should be further evaluated by scintigraphy even if TSH is normal. In the case of hot thyroid nodules both parathyroid and partial thyroid resection should be performed.
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ranking = 4
keywords = operative
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3/20. Cold thyroid nodule as the sole manifestation of Rosai-Dorfman disease with mild lymphadenopathy, coexisting with chronic autoimmune thyroiditis.

    A case of thyroid Rosai-Dorfman disease (RDD) without apparent lymphadenopathy in a 49-year-old woman with underlying euthyroid chronic autoimmune thyroiditis, as indicated by high thyroid autoantibodies titers, is presented. The initial presentation was that of a cold, hypoechogenic nodule of left thyroid lobe which increased in size during the two years of follow up, together with new ultrasonographic findings of the right lobe. No biochemical abnormalities were found apart from mild hypercalcemia. A near total thyroidectomy was performed. Histologically, the left lobe nodule as well as the right lobe lesions consisted of typical RDD cellular population, with the pathognomonic phenomenon of emperipolesis. Infiltration to the periphery of the gland was observed and three adjacent lymph nodes were also involved. The uninvolved thyroid parenchyma showed changes compatible with chronic autoimmune thyroiditis. No other localizations or systemic manifestations of RDD were revealed. Normocalcemia was restored promptly and the patient remains free of clinically overt disease one year post-operatively.
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keywords = operative
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4/20. "Hot" carcinoma of the thyroid. case reports and comments on the literature.

    It seems somewhat difficult to exactly define the real number of case reports concerning the association of hyperfunctioning thyroid node and carcinoma; the overall incidence of this condition seems, however, to be very rare. Different inclusion criteria are probably a fairly relevant cause of variability in the number of cases reported during the years. A basic classification scheme, as the one here reported, may be of help in characterizing the different possible conditions: 1. the coexistence of carcinoma and focally hyperfunctioning tissue in the same gland but at different locations (not uncommon); 2. the presence of such a large tumour mass that it can compete with normal tissue for tracer uptake, despite being hormonogenetically uneffective in itself; 3. the carcinoma located in the hyperfunctioning adenoma; 4. the real hyperfunctioning carcinoma, where coincidence between hyperfunctioning tissue and malignancy is complete (very rare). Two cases are reported here, respectively belonging to the third and fourth of these categories (the most challenging from a diagnostic point of view). The matter is intrinsically poor from a statistical standpoint: it is therefore difficult to draw definitive conclusions on the subject in operative terms. It is however felt that the systematic evaluation of oncological risk in thyroid nodes, occasionally recommended in the literature, may be cumbersome and not necessarily cost-effective.
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5/20. Macrofollicular encapsulated variant of papillary thyroid carcinoma as a potential pitfall in histologic and cytologic diagnosis. A report of three cases.

    BACKGROUND: Macrofollicular encapsulated papillary carcinoma (MEPC) is a variant of papillary carcinoma with a favorable clinical course. Its characteristic histologic pattern could be mistaken for that of an adenoma or hyperplastic nodule. Fine needle aspiration of this neoplasm may not show the particular nuclear features of papillary carcinoma, so the cytologic diagnosis may be benign. case reports: Three paradigmatic cases of MEPC with different histologic patterns, diagnosed as a follicular neoplasm using fine needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB) are described. Preoperative cytology showed scattered clusters of thyrocytes with prominent nuclear pleomorphism and irregularities and focal oxyphilic changes mixed with colloid and aggregates of typical thyrocytes. The histologic picture exhibits small, neoplastic foci showing a microfollicular structure within an encapsulated neoplasm with a macrofollicular pattern. In microfollicular areas obvious nuclear pseudoinclusions were seldom observed. CONCLUSION: MEPC represents a challenging tumor subtype that infrequently shows the pathognomonic cytologic characteristics of papillary carcinoma, and therefore it is much more difficult to diagnose with a FNAB. Nuclear pleomorphism and irregularity of the nuclear membrane of thyrocytes are clues to this variant, although in some cases a clear-cut preoperative diagnosis cannot be made.
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ranking = 2
keywords = operative
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6/20. Non-recurrent inferior laryngeal nerve in thyroid surgery: report of three cases and review of the literature.

    The non-recurrent inferior laryngeal nerve (NRILN) is a nerve anomaly that can be associated with an increased risk of vocal fold paralysis. The purpose of this study was to report three new cases of this anomaly, underline the necessity of recognizing its possibility for the prevention of intra-operative nerve damage and a review of the literature. Three cases of thyroid surgery associated with right NRILN are reported. Two patients underwent bilateral thyroidectomy for a multinodular goitre and for a toxic multinodular goitre respectively. The third patient had a right lobectomy and isthmectomy for a thyroid nodule. All patients had identification of the recurrent laryngeal nerve on the left side and NRILN on the right side. The diagnosis of the NRILN was made per-operatively on all cases. A post-operative computed tomography (CT) scan in two patients, showed a retrooesophageal aberrant right subclavian artery. Post-operatively, all patients had normal vocal fold function on laryngoscopy. The NRILN is a rare anomaly but overlooking its possibility may lead to severe operative morbidity. This is an additional argument in favour of systematic dissection of the recurrent inferior laryngeal nerve during thyroid surgery.
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ranking = 5
keywords = operative
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7/20. 6: Thyroid nodules and thyroid cancer.

    Thyroid nodules are common clinically (prevalence, about 5%) and even more common on ultrasound examination (about 25%). About 5% of thyroid nodules are malignant. Most thyroid cancers are well-differentiated papillary or follicular tumours with an excellent prognosis (10-year survival, 80%-95%). The incidence of papillary thyroid cancer appears to be increasing on the east coast of australia. Fine-needle aspiration biopsy of the thyroid is the most cost-effective diagnostic tool. Recommended initial management of all follicular carcinomas and of papillary carcinomas > 1.0 cm is total thyroidectomy followed by radioiodine ablation. Most patients should be managed postoperatively with doses of thyroid hormone sufficient to suppress plasma levels of thyroid-stimulating hormone. Recurrences can occur many years after initial therapy, and follow-up should be lifelong. Thyroid nodules are very common, but have a relatively low risk of malignancy
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keywords = operative
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8/20. Thyroid implants after surgery and blunt trauma.

    The differential diagnosis of thyroid tissue found laterally in the neck includes several conditions: lymph node deposits of thyroid carcinoma, "benign metastatic thyroidosis," detached thyroid nodules, and true ectopic thyroid tissue. We have studied nine cases with thyroid deposits in the soft tissues of the neck that do not conform to these diagnoses. We present evidence that they represent surgical or traumatic implantation of thyroid neoplasms. Eight of the nine cases presented one to 26 years after initial surgery. Adequate information of the operative procedure was available in seven cases, one patient underwent subtotal lobectomy and six subtotal thyroidectomy for a nodular gland. The nodules occurred within the operation field with no evidence that they were within lymph nodes. In six cases, birefringent particles consistent with talc from the earlier operation were found adjacent to the nodules. Three cases showed implants of colloid nodules, three of follicular adenoma, one of oncocytic (Hurthle) cell adenoma and one of follicular carcinoma. In the ninth case, infiltrating thyroid tissue in muscle and fibrous tissue presented 3 years after major blunt trauma to the neck. The tissue resembled that in a disrupted thyroid nodule present in the gland itself and was regarded as traumatically implanted. The observation that surgery or trauma to a nodular thyroid can occasionally lead to multiple subcutaneous thyroid implants has implication for management of thyroid disease. Therapy may be difficult; recurrence followed surgical removal of the nodules in three cases, and radioiodine may be a more effective therapy. Recognition of this entity is important for accurate pathologic diagnosis. It is apparently limited to implantation of tumor. The absence of implantation of normal or hyperplastic thyroid, despite the high frequency of partial thyroidectomy in Graves' disease, has pathobiological implications. These findings also support the generally held view that lobectomy rather than nodulectomy is the operation of choice for a solitary nodule.
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ranking = 1
keywords = operative
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9/20. Hyperfunctioning parathyroid cysts: a case report.

    Parathyroid cysts are infrequent lesions of which most are non-functional. They are often misdiagnosed as thyroid cysts. Pre-operative diagnosis and differentiation from thyroid cysts is generally difficult. We hereby report a case that was admitted to the emergency room and was diagnosed as hypercalcemic crisis. The mass found during the neck examination was thought to be a thyroid nodule. A right total and left subtotal thyroidectomy was performed. Palpable thyroid nodule was diagnosed as cystic parathyroid adenoma postoperatively. When a cystic lesion is found in the neck of a patient, a pararthyroid cyst should be considered.
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ranking = 2
keywords = operative
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10/20. Suspected pharyngoesophageal perforation after a difficult intubation: a case report.

    Although uncommon and rarely reported, pharyngoesophageal perforation has medical and legal consequences of substantial proportion. Perforation of the upper aerodigestive system may result in severe airway complications that include pneumothorax, pneumonia, mediastinitis, and retropharyngeal abscess. Despite the relative rare occurrence of esophageal perforation during intubation, this type of injury is associated with the poorest outcome, especially when the diagnosis and treatment are delayed. Our case report presents a healthy 23-year-old female for a thyroidectomy. Postoperatively she developed what appeared to be symptoms of pharyngoesophageal injury, suspected to be related to blunt trauma from laryngoscopy. knowledge of and prompt attention to the cardinal signs of pharyngoesophageal injury in partnership between the anesthetist and the surgical team were the key instruments in ruling out this potentially devastating diagnosis.
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