Cases reported "Tibial Fractures"

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11/124. Metastatic fractures of the tibia.

    Pathologic fractures of the tibia due to a metastasis are rare. The treatment of an established fracture is sometimes conservative, but more often surgical. The purpose of the surgical procedure is to improve the quality of life and the ambulatory status, to relieve pain and to facilitate activities of daily living and nursing care. Four cases of operatively managed metastatic fractures of the tibia are presented with emphasis on the surgical technique. The scarce literature on metastatic tibial fractures in reviewed. The operative technique to be used does not only depend on the location of the tumor but also on the primary tumor, the response to adjuvant therapy and the life expectancy. For metastatic shaft fractures an intramedullary nail, sometimes augmented with bone cement, is preferred. For distal or proximal fractures a compound osteosynthesis with plates and screws offers a good solution. In the epiphyseal and metaphyseal region of the tibia an amputation or a tumor prosthesis is the procedure of choice.
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ranking = 1
keywords = operative
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12/124. Bilateral fracture of the tibial shaft with intact fibulae.

    We report the case history, treatment, and follow-up of a 16-year-old girl who sustained symmetrical fractures of the right and left tibia without fractures of the fibulae. Although a fracture of the tibia with an intact fibula is not an uncommon fracture pattern, a bilateral fracture of this type is quite rare, and we have been unable to find such a reported case in our review of the literature. The management of a fracture of the tibia with an intact fibula is controversial, with potential complications of delayed union and varus malunion. For this reason, as well as the bilateral nature of the injury, we felt operative treatment to be indicated.
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ranking = 0.5
keywords = operative
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13/124. Asymptomatic hypercalcemia due to an ectopic parathyroid adenoma in an 8-year-old boy.

    The diagnosis of primary hyperparathyroidism in children is often delayed and is usually based on symptoms of hypercalcemia rather than abnormal laboratory values alone. We report the case of an 8-year-old boy with hypercalcemia, hypophosphatemia and mildly, but inadequately elevated intact parathyroid hormone (iPTH) who presented without any symptoms of hyperparathyroidism. Although imaging studies were misleading and four normal parathyroid glands were found intraoperatively, exploration of the thymus revealed an ectopic parathyroid adenoma. After removal of the ectopic gland, a rapid iPTH immunoassay proved immediate normalization of iPTH. This is the first report of sporadic isolated primary hyperparathyroidism diagnosed in an asymptomatic child on the basis of hypercalcemia and hypophosphatemia.
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ranking = 0.5
keywords = operative
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14/124. Coronal split fracture of the proximal tibia epiphysis through a partially closed physis: a new fracture pattern.

    SUMMARY: A comminuted coronal split fracture of the proximal tibial epiphysis is an uncommon injury in children. The authors evaluated and treated two patients who sustained an epiphyseal fracture through a partially closed proximal tibial epiphysis. Plain radiography and computed tomography with three-dimensional reconstruction showed a comminuted coronal split fracture of the proximal tibial epiphysis. Each patient underwent definitive operative fixation of the fracture and was followed at least 1 year after clinical union. A mechanism consisting of three-point bending on the tibial plateau is proposed.
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ranking = 0.5
keywords = operative
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15/124. Free tissue transfer in pregnancy: guidelines for perioperative management.

    A successful free tissue transfer of serratus anterior muscle, to provide coverage for an open ankle defect in a pregnant patient, is described. Microvascular surgery in the presence of a viable pregnancy demands considerations unique to this situation. Although rarely possible, an attempt should be made to plan surgery to coincide with the second trimester, to lessen the risk of anesthesia to the fetus. Maternal positioning, fluid balance, and aspiration precautions need to be critically addressed. Close perioperative monitoring by an obstetrician is essential. The condition of pregnancy results in a hypercoagulable state that may lead to an increased risk of anastomotic failure. The use of anticoagulants results in increased risk of bleeding, not only for the patient but also for the fetus, as well as risk of teratogenic effects. Closely monitored heparin is considered safe in pregnancy as is low-molecular-weight dextran and low-dose aspirin. Additional considerations include the use of narcotics and sedatives for comfort postoperatively, as well as antibiotic choices, if indicated.
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ranking = 3
keywords = operative
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16/124. Fracture of the proximal tibia six months after Fulkerson osteotomy. A report of two cases.

    The Fulkerson osteotomy has proved to be a reliable treatment for subluxation of the patella due to malalignment. Aggressive rehabilitation in the early postoperative period is unwise since the proximal tibia is weakened by the oblique osteotomy. Early weight-bearing and unrestricted activity have caused fractures in a few patients. Even late in the postoperative period the osteotomy may adversely influence the biomechanical properties of the proximal tibia. We describe two athletes who sustained a fracture of the proximal tibia, during recreational activities, six months after a Fulkerson osteotomy. Both had been bearing full weight for about ten weeks without complaint. Bony healing of the osteotomy had been demonstrated on plain radiographs at ten and at 12 weeks. After a Fulkerson osteotomy, jogging and activities which impose considerable impact force should be discouraged for at least nine to 12 months.
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ranking = 1
keywords = operative
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17/124. Periprosthetic tibial fractures after cementless low contact stress total knee arthroplasty.

    periprosthetic fractures are a recognized complication of total knee arthroplasty. Fractures may occur intraoperatively or postoperatively, and risk factors have been identified that may predispose an individual to such a complication. We report 7 cases of periprosthetic tibial fractures after low contact stress total knee arthroplasty, a complication encountered by the senior author (D.E.B.) only after a change in practice from a cemented implant to a cementless one. In light of this previously unreported complication in our unit, we attempted to identify common features within this group of patients that may have contributed to fracture occurrence. Statistical analysis revealed a highly significant (P<.005) risk of periprosthetic tibial fracture in patients with a preoperative neutral or valgus knee. Age, gender, and diagnosis did not appear to increase the risk of fracture significantly. All patients displayed evidence of reduced bone mineral density in the lumbar spine and femoral neck regions on dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry scanning. patients with a preoperative neutral or valgus knee and local evidence of osteopenia represent a high-risk group, in whom particular care in alignment should be taken. In this group, it may be preferable to have the tibial component inserted with cement fixation.
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ranking = 2
keywords = operative
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18/124. Partial sleeve fractures of the tibia in children: an unusual fracture pattern.

    Sleeve avulsion fractures of the patella are a well-recognized fracture pattern in children. Less appreciated is a similar fracture pattern involving the anterior metaphyseal area of the tibia. These metaphyseal sleeve fractures represent a fracture pattern characterized by the avulsion of a large area of periosteal attachment of the patellar tendon associated with small subchondral fragments of bone, encountered in skeletally immature children secondary to contraction of the quadriceps associated with forced knee flexion. Although an avulsion fracture of the tibial tubercle is the usual result of this type of trauma, partial sleeve avulsion fractures of the tibial apophysis and adjacent metaphysis occasionally occur and have not been adequately described. It was the authors' purpose to describe their experience with this fracture pattern. Since 1998, three boys have presented to a major pediatric trauma center with a partial sleeve fracture of the tibia. The average age was 13 years 6 months (range 10 years 3 months to 15 years 3 months). Follow-up ranged from 1 year 5 months to 2 years 3 months, with an average of 1 year 9 months. All three boys were treated with open reduction and internal fixation with small cancellous screws and postoperative plaster immobilization. At the time of most recent follow-up, each child showed full range of knee motion and had returned to all sports activities.
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ranking = 0.5
keywords = operative
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19/124. adult tibial intercondylar eminence fracture: evaluation with MR imaging.

    Tibial intercondylar eminence (TIE) fractures are well described in the pediatric orthopedic literature. adult TIEs are much less common, and limited literature exists on the subject. adult knee hyperextension injuries commonly result in anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury; however, with significant trauma, a TIE enters the differential diagnosis. Identification and classification of TIE fractures typically has been provided by radiography. The incidence of concomitant injuries with magnetic resonance (MR) imaging in patients with adult TIE fractures has not been determined. We present a case of an adult type III TIE fracture seen on radiography that only with further MR imaging revealed a concomitant lateral tibial plateau fracture. Utilization of MR imaging altered the surgeon's course of treatment and postoperative care. Radiographic and MR images and a review of the literature are provided.
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ranking = 0.5
keywords = operative
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20/124. Compartment syndrome of the calf and foot following a displaced Salter-Harris type II fracture of the distal tibia: a review of the literature and a case report.

    A 14 year-old boy with an epiphyseal fracture of the distal right tibia and fibula developed compartment syndrome of the calf and foot. The diagnosis of compartment syndrome was delayed and a fasciotomy resulted in uncontrolled infection, which ultimately resulted in an above knee amputation. Constant vigilance is necessary in uncooperative or non-complaining patients to detect the signs and symptoms of compartment syndrome, even where the injury is not often associated with this complication. The difficulties in management, following a fasciotomy for delayed diagnosis of compartment syndrome, are discussed.
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ranking = 0.5
keywords = operative
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