Cases reported "Tinnitus"

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1/38. Cochlear and vestibular dysfunction resulting from physical exertion or environmental pressure changes.

    Inner ear damage due to physical exertion or environmental pressure changes has been described only recently. According to Goodhill there are two possible mechanisms of injury: the explosive and the implosive. The former is triggered by increased C.S.F. pressure transmitted to the perilymph space; the latter by increased pressure in the middle ear transmitted to the perilymph space through the two windows. Sudden hearing loss or dizziness, or both, are the main symptoms. The diagnosis will be established by the history, the audiogram, and the electronystagmogram (ENG). The treatment is still controversial. As the formation of a fistula is a real possibility, an exploratory tympanotomy is suggestive on suspected cases. Due to the variety of symptoms every case has to be assessed individually. A detailed history is of utmost importance.
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ranking = 1
keywords = fistula
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2/38. Spontaneous carotico-cavernous fistula presenting as pulsatile tinnitus.

    A patient with sudden onset pulsatile tinnitus resulting from a spontaneous carotico-cavernous fistula is presented. The case is discussed and illustrated to highlight the clinical features and natural history of a condition rarely seen by ENT surgeons.
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ranking = 5
keywords = fistula
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3/38. Selective transvenous liquid embolization of a Type 1 dural arteriovenous fistula at the junction of the transverse and sigmoid sinuses. Case report.

    The authors describe the case of a 51-year-old man with a Type 1 dural arteriovenous fistula (AVF) located at the junction of the transverse and sigmoid sinuses. The dural AVF developed after the patient underwent a craniotomy for an acute extradural hematoma. The patient suffered pulsatile tinnitus 3 months after surgery. After several attempts at transarterial embolization (TAE), the venous channel located close to the skull fracture was accessed via a transfemoral-transvenous approach and was embolized by administering a liquid nonadhesive agent. Successful embolization of the dural AVF was achieved both clinically and radiologically without causing considerable hemodynamic alterations. This procedure, either alone or combined with TAE, would seem to be an alternative treatment for dural AVFs in this location, without causing compromise of flow within the affected sinuses, when selective venous access is available.
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ranking = 5
keywords = fistula
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4/38. Indirect carotid cavernous fistula presenting as pulsatile tinnitus.

    This paper reports a case of spontaneous indirect carotid cavernous fistula that presented with pulsatile tinnitus, left-sided temporal headache and left-sided ptosis. The pulsatile tinnitus, its aetiology and investigation are discussed. The importance of pulsatile tinnitus is highlighted, with a discussion of carotid-cavernous fistulas. This case illustrates that clinically silent cavernous sinus thrombosis can give rise to spontaneous indirect carotid cavernous fistula. magnetic resonance imaging angiography was used in diagnosis. Treatment ranges from observation, as in our case, to transvenous endovascular techniques.
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ranking = 7
keywords = fistula
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5/38. tinnitus caused by traumatic posterior auricular artery--internal jugular vein fistula.

    A patient with an arteriovenous fistula that developed after a traffic accident was recently treated. The patient noticed pulsatile tinnitus in the right orbital region two months after the accident. On the first visit, the preliminary clinical impression of this case was a carotid-cavernous fistula, but angiography showed a fistula between the posterior auricular artery and the internal jugular vein. Although rare, this arteriovenous fistula should be included in the differential diagnosis of pusatile tinnitus in the orbit region. The fistula was controlled by embolization with a platinum coil. This is the first report of an arteriovenous fistula between the posterior auricular artery and internal jugular vein.
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ranking = 10
keywords = fistula
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6/38. rupture of the round window membrane.

    A perilymph leak into the middle ear through a ruptured round window membrane results in the symptoms of hearing loss, tinnitus and vertigo, either singly or in combination. The case histories of thirteen patients with such a fistula are described, these patients having in common a predisposing incident which had led to a rise of C.S.F. pressure. Symptomatology and the results of investigation are analysed and operative technique and results discussed. While it appears that vertigo uniformly responds very satisfactorily to operative treatment the improvement in hearing loss and tinnitus is more difficult to predict.
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ranking = 1
keywords = fistula
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7/38. Pulsatile tinnitus alleviated by contralateral neck compression: a case report.

    A case of a 58-year-old man with right pulsatile tinnitus originating from a small dural arteriovenous fistula (DAVF) of the jugular bulb is described. The tinnitus was alleviated by contralateral neck compression. This unusual observation ruled out venous pulsatile tinnitus, although a temporal bone CT scan showed a high jugular bulb. The fistula was confirmed by angiographic study. The patient was treated by transarterial embolization of the fistula and remains free of symptoms 1 year after treatment.
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ranking = 3
keywords = fistula
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8/38. Subjective pulsatile tinnitus associated with extensive pneumatization of temporal bone.

    Pulsatile tinnitus (PT) although an infrequent otologic symptom. PT can be objective (auscaltable) or subjective (non-auscultable). It has been suggested that subjective PT could occasionally be associated with vascular disorders such as arteriovenous malformation, traumatic or spontaneous carotico-cavernous fistula, intracranial aneurysms, vascular tumors of the temporal bone and cerebellopontine angle, fibromuscular dysplasia, cervical venous hums and high jugular bulb. To our literature knowledge, it has not been reported subjective PT due to extensive pneumatization of temporal bone around internal carotid artery (ICA). In this report, we present a case of subjective PT, which was caused by resonance due to extensive pneumatization of temporal bone particularly peripheral to the ICA.
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ranking = 1
keywords = fistula
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9/38. Traumatic perilymphatic fistula: how long can symptoms persist? A follow-up report.

    In the past 18 years 68 ears (average 3.8 per year) were explored for perilymphatic fistula (PLF). A total of nine (13%) ears had a fistula identified at operation. patients with a previous history of otologic surgery were excluded from this review. The most common etiology for PLF was head trauma (4 of 9). Most patients had persistent symptoms lasting months (average 6.7). Eighty-three percent of all patients had sudden or fluctuating hearing loss, 77 percent had vertigo or dysequilibrium, and 61 percent had tinnitus. vertigo was the most commonly improved symptom postoperatively, and only 25 percent of patients had improved hearing. There were no major complications. The authors discuss indications for operation, criteria for diagnosis of PLF, and audiometric and electronystagmographic findings. This report agrees with other recent data indicating that exploration for fistula is an uncommon procedure performed by otologists.
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ranking = 7
keywords = fistula
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10/38. Transarterial approach for selective intravenous coil embolization of a benign dural arteriovenous fistula. Case report.

    Transarterial particulate embolization is indicated for benign intracranial dural arteriovenous fistulas (DAVFs) that have no dangerous venous reflux. This treatment, however, does not cure these lesions. In this case report the authors describe a spontaneously occurring DAVF that was treated by implanting coils through a transarterial microcatheter into the affected venous channel. The channel was separate from the normal dural sinuses. The pathological architecture of the fistula and the usefulness of this approach are discussed.
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ranking = 6
keywords = fistula
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