Cases reported "Tonsillar Neoplasms"

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11/64. Alveolar rhabdomyosarcoma presenting as a peritonsillar abscess.

    A rhabdomyosarcoma of the head and neck region is a rare childhood neoplasm often presenting with vague symptoms that can easily mimic other diseases. We present an unusual case of an alveolar rhabdomyosarcoma of the soft palate in a three-year-old child, that presented as a peritonsillar abscess.
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keywords = neck
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12/64. Extranodal follicular dendritic cell sarcoma of the head and neck region: three new cases, with a review of the literature.

    Extranodal follicular dendritic cell (FDC) sarcoma of the head and neck region is uncommon, with 16 well-documented cases previously reported (four in the tonsil, four in the pharynx, two in the palate, five in the soft tissue, and one in the thyroid). We here report an additional three cases of extranodal FDC sarcoma in the tonsil (two cases) and pharynx (one case). In these new cases, the neoplastic cells were arranged in diffuse, fascicular, and vaguely whorled growth patterns. A background lymphocytic infiltrate was sprinkled throughout the neoplasms, with focal prominent perivascular cuffing. Scattered multinucleated giant cells were present. Immunohistochemically, tumor cells were strongly and diffusely positive for follicular dendritic cell markers CD21 and CD35. Tumor cells were diffusely positive for fascin and negative for leukocyte common antigen, S-100 protein, cytokeratin, and Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) latent membrane protein-1 (EBV-LMP). EBV was also not detected in the tumor cells by in situ hybridization for EBV-encoded RNAs. FDC sarcomas are probably an underrecognized neoplasm, especially when they occur in extranodal sites in the head and neck region. Two of the three new cases we report were initially misdiagnosed, and five cases of extranodal FDC sarcoma in the head and neck region reported in the recent literature were initially misdiagnosed. Our aim is to complement the current understanding of this neoplasm and alert pathologists to this rare entity in this region to avoid misdiagnosis. Recognition of extranodal FDC sarcoma requires a high index of suspicion, but this tumor has numerous distinctive histological features that should bring the neoplasm into the differential diagnosis. Confirmatory immunohistochemical staining with follicular dendritic cell markers such as CD21 and/or CD35 is essential for the diagnosis. Correct characterization of this neoplasm is imperative given its potential for recurrence and metastasis.
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keywords = neck
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13/64. Neurocardiogenic syncope due to recurrent tonsillar carcinoma: successful treatment by dual chamber cardiac pacing with rate hysteresis.

    A patient with recurrent tonsillar carcinoma in his neck presented with cardioinhibitory neurocardiogenic syncope. Ventricular demand pacing was ineffective in preventing recurrent symptoms. The pacemaker was upgraded to a dual chamber device with hysteresis that eliminated further syncopal episodes.
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14/64. Angioleiomyoma in the tonsil: an uncommon tumour in a rare site.

    An angioleiomyoma was excised from the palatine tonsil in a 30-year-old woman who complained of a painless swelling in the region of the tonsil. The mucosa covering the lesion showed prominent dilated blood vessels, necessitating vascular laboratory investigations to exclude any possibility of an aneurysm arising from the carotid system. The mass was excised with little blood loss. This was an uncommon tumour in an unusual site and required radio-imaging and angiographic studies of the great vessels of the head and neck before any operation was attempted. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case reported in English.
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keywords = neck
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15/64. CT angiography before embolization for hemorrhage in head and neck cancer.

    We present a patient with advanced head and neck carcinoma and a bleeding pseudoaneurysm diagnosed by means of CT angiography; this was not apparent on conventional digital subtraction angiograms. The information provided by CT angiography facilitated rapid identification of the pseudoaneurysm and treatment with embolization. CT angiography may be helpful before embolization in cases of hemorrhage in head and neck cancer.
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keywords = neck
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16/64. A rare case of Crohn's disease in head and neck surgery.

    oral manifestations of Crohn's disease may present to the Otolaryngologist in the form of ulceration, glossitis and odynophagia, but rarer examples of presentation are also recognized. In this case a 24-year-old lady presented with cervical lymphadenopathy, the subsequent investigation of which resulted in the identification of the disease both in this node and in the tonsils. It is noted that these lesions may precede the classical intestinal manifestations and so the Otolaryngologist could aid in the initial diagnosis of the disease. The pathogenic possibilities of how Crohn's disease might have arisen in these and other extra-intestinal regions, are discussed.
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ranking = 4
keywords = neck
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17/64. Endovascular management of a ruptured mycotic aneurysm of the innominate artery.

    Mycotic aneurysms of the innominate artery are infrequent lesions and, as such, represent challenging surgical problems. We describe herein a case of a ruptured mycotic innominate artery aneurysm, which developed after radical neck dissection and radiation therapy for tonsillar carcinoma. The aneurysm was successfully excluded from the systemic circulation with endoluminal placement of a covered stent, with efficacy confirmed by vascular imaging at 6 months follow-up. The patient suffered no permanent neurologic sequelae. Long-term follow-up and chronic antibiotic therapy will be necessary to avoid infection of the covered stent in this high-risk surgical patient.
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ranking = 1
keywords = neck
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18/64. Management of lateral cystic swellings of the neck, in the over 40s' age group.

    We present a series of three case reports of patients over the age of 40 with cystic swellings in the lateral neck. Clinically they masqueraded as branchial cysts, but subsequently were diagnosed as being squamous cell carcinoma cystic lymph node metastasis arising from an occult tonsillar primary. Currently there is an absence of national guidelines for the treatment of lateral neck cysts in the over 40s' age group that subsequently prove to be cystic metastases from occult tonsillar primaries. This disease process is more common than thought, with up to 80 per cent of so-called branchial cysts in the over 40s' age group being malignant. We recommend that patients over the age of 40 presenting with lateral cystic swellings in the neck should have a high suspicion of malignancy and require a panendoscopy, ipsilateral tonsillectomy and blind biopsies of Waldeyer's ring. This avoids inadvertent excision of a possible cystic lymph node metastasis. If the panendoscopy histology proves to be benign, then proceed to excision of the cyst with frozen section analysis of it. If this confirms it to be benign then that is all that is necessary; if the frozen section is however positive for carcinoma then the surgeon can proceed at that time to a formal neck dissection and therefore avoid a further procedure. In the event of an occult tonsillar malignancy, excision of the cyst as part of a neck dissection with post-operative radiotherapy is recommended. It is our aim to treat a cystic lymph node metastasis as you would a solid lymph node metastasis.
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ranking = 9
keywords = neck
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19/64. Pleomorphic lipoma of the tonsillar fossa--a case report.

    Pleomorphic lipoma is a benign adipocytic tumor, commonly located in the shoulder and posterior neck region. The presence of bizarre, hyperchromatic stromal cells along with multinucleated giant cells often poses difficulty in diagnosis, especially when it arises at an unusual site like tonsillar fossa.
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keywords = neck
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20/64. Lateral cervical cyst with unsuspected metastasis from an occult tonsillar carcinoma.

    Lateral cervical cysts containing squamous cell carcinoma is a diagnostic and therapeutic challenge for the clinician since they usually represent a cystic metastasis from an occult carcinoma. Various imaging modalities or even blind biopsies will help identify the primary tumour. If the primary tumour is identified, an appropriate treatment decision can be made that incorporates both the primary tumour and the cervical node. If the primary remains unidentified, the neck is treated with a modified or radical neck dissection, depending on the extent of metastatic disease, and radiation therapy is administered to Waldeyer's ring and both necks. We present in this paper, a case with a large cervical cyst where histology showed the presence of a poorly differentiated squamous cell carcinoma in the wall of the cyst. A diagnostic evaluation of the patient was negative. Blind biopsies of the right tonsil revealed occult squamous cell carcinoma. The patient was treated by combined chemo/radiotherapy and she is doing well nine months following excision of the mass. The relevant literature is briefly reviewed.
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keywords = neck
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