Cases reported "Tooth, Unerupted"

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1/60. Radiographic localization of unerupted maxillary anterior teeth using the vertical tube shift technique: the history and application of the method with some case reports.

    The preferred means of radiographic localization is the parallax method introduced by Clark in 1910. He used 2 periapical radiographs and shifted the tube in the horizontal plane. In 1952, Richards appreciated that a vertical tube shift could also be carried out. No major changes then occurred in the technique until Keur, in australia, in 1986 replaced the periapical radiographs with occlusal radiographs. This modification enables a greater tube movement and therefore a greater shift of the image of the impacted tooth; it also ensures that the whole of the tooth is captured on the radiograph. For the vertical tube shift, Keur introduced the use of a rotational panoramic radiograph with an occlusal radiograph. In 1987, Southall and Gravely discussed this vertical tube shift combination in the English dental literature, and it is now the preferred combination of radiographs for localizing impacted maxillary anterior teeth. Jacobs introduced this method to the American literature in 1999, but it has yet to gain acceptance in the continental European literature. Jacobs recommended, when using this combination, to routinely increase the vertical angulation for the occlusal radiograph by 10 degrees to achieve a greater image shift. Four case reports are presented in this article. Three have photographs taken at surgical exposure to illustrate how the position of the impacted tooth can be accurately predicted by appropriate interpretation of the radiographs.
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2/60. Piggyback archwires.

    Commonly, clinicians' principal tool in the alignment phase of orthodontic mechanotherapy is the nickel-titanium wire. During the course of orthodontic treatment, however, there are times when some segments of the dental arch require flexible wires, while the rest would benefit from rigid wires. In this report, we describe a technique where both of these needs are satisfied simultaneously. Specifically, a segment of nickel-titanium wire is piggybacked onto a stainless steel wire in regions where flexibility is desired. This method eliminates the problems associated with the activation, de-activation forces created along a continuous archwire and might be more economical. Clinical pictures illustrate the point.
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3/60. Hurler syndrome: a case report.

    Hurler syndrome is an inherited disorder of mucopolysaceharide metabolism, which is caused by a defect in genetically controlled pathways of lysosomal degradation. It represents the classical prototype of mucopolysaccharide disorder. An interesting case of a three and a half-year old boy with a rare combination of skeletal, neurological, ophthalmologic, and dental findings is presented. It is a rare syndrome with a very low prevalence of 1:100,000 births and as such the clinician should be aware of this syndrome.
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4/60. crown lengthening to facilitate restorative treatment in the presence of incomplete passive eruption.

    Crown-lengthening surgery can be utilized to expose subgingival caries. In this clinical case, a patient presented with incomplete passive eruption in the maxillary anterior sextant. This case illustrates that when incomplete passive eruption is present and restorative treatment is necessary in the maxillary anterior sextant, crown-lengthening surgery not only provides exposure of subgingival caries but can also result in a more esthetic therapeutic outcome.
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keywords = caries
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5/60. Submerging deciduous molars--an extraction in time!

    A case is presented of a 25-year-old man with a submerged lower second deciduous molar and an impacted lower second premolar. Treatment was complicated by the relationship of the teeth to the inferior dental nerve, which necessitated extensive bone removal and mental nerve transposition to remove the submerged and impacted teeth. Early recognition and treatment of the submerging tooth might have prevented the need for such extensive surgery and morbidity at a later date.
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6/60. True oligodontia with microdontia in monozygous twins: implications for reappraisal of Butler's Field Theory.

    Oligodontia, which may be defined as the congenital absence of six or more teeth apart from third molars, affects less than 0.5% of the population and may occur in isolation or as part of a syndrome. This paper aims to clarify the role of genetic factors in this condition by reporting a case of a pair of identical twins and their mother who display similar patterns of oligodontia without medical problems. Each twin has 13 missing permanent teeth and their mother 16 missing teeth, but the patterns of agenesis do not conform with Butler's Field Theory according to which the distal teeth in each class are most likely to be absent. Unerupted third molars are present in both twins and all three family members display maxillary lateral incisors. Dental crown size profile patterns were computed for all three individuals and highlight a marked reduction in mesiodistal and buccolingual dimensions of the remaining teeth in each. In addition, erupted teeth showed simplified crown morphology. Oligodontia should not be viewed in isolation, but rather considered as one manifestation of a variety of dental changes in genetically susceptible individuals.
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7/60. Chondroectodermal dysplasia: a case report.

    Chondroectodermal Dysplasia is a disease complex consisting of bilateral manual polydactyly, chondrodysplasia of long bones resulting in acromelic dwarfism, hydroitic ectodermal dysplasia affecting principally the nails, teeth and hair and congenital heart malformations. It is necessary to identify this disease at its early stage in order to render prompt treatment. The oral manifestations are characteristic for this particular disease so that a dental surgeon can identify this condition and refer the case to a cardiologist and orthopedician for corrective surgeries. In this article, a case of a 2 1/2-year old child with chondro-ectodermal dysplasia is presented along with radiographic investigations and treatment plan.
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8/60. Hereditary gingival fibromatosis with distinct dental, skeletal and developmental abnormalities.

    A case of a 9-year-old child with hereditary gingival fibromatosis, supernumerary tooth, chest deformities, auricular cartilage deformation, joint laxity and undescended testes is described. The exact mode of inheritance is unclear; a new mutation pattern is possible. These features resemble but differ from the previously reported Laband syndrome. The dental treatment consisted of surgical removal of the fibrous tissue and conservative restorative treatment under general anesthesia. The dental practitioner should be alert for developmental abnormalities such as supernumerary teeth and delayed tooth eruption. A comprehensive medical history and physical systemic evaluation is essential to rule out other systemic abnormalities. Genetic consultation is mandatory for future family planing.
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9/60. Pericoronal radiolucencies and the significance of early detection.

    Pericoronal radiolucencies are common radiographic findings encountered in general dental practice. They usually represent a normal or enlarged dental follicle that requires no intervention; alternatively they may represent a pathological entity that requires appropriate management and histopathological interpretation. A pericoronal space of greater than 2.5mm on an intraoral radiograph and greater than 3mm on a rotational panoramic radiograph should be regarded as suspicious. Although many pathological processes may present radiographically as pericoronal radiolucencies associated with unerupted teeth, the most common is the dentigerous cyst. These lesions may enlarge considerably if allowed to develop unchecked, and have the potential for pathological transformation. In this report we present four cases of large pericoronal radiolucencies associated with unerupted teeth, and highlight the importance of early detection and management of such lesions.
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10/60. Segmental odontomaxillary dysplasia: an unusual orthodontic challenge.

    Segmental odontomaxillary dysplasia has only recently been delineated from other osseo-odontogenic dysplasias. Yet, this seldom-reported developmental abnormality might be diagnosed by a unique combination of clinical, radiographic, and histologic findings. Unilateral maxillary hyperplasia combined with displaced molars and unusual bone trabeculation is quite obvious at an early age. Recognition and subsequent reporting by dental specialists is encouraged to more clearly define the natural progression and the appropriate treatment of this abnormality.
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