Cases reported "Toxoplasmosis"

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1/51. hiv infection and seizures.

    New-onset seizures are frequent manifestations of central nervous system disorders in patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus (hiv). seizures are more common in advanced stages of the disease, although they may occur early in the course of illness. In the majority of patients, seizures are of the generalised type. status epilepticus is also frequent. Associated metabolic abnormalities increase the risk for status epilepticus. Cerebral mass lesions, cryptococcal meningitis, and hiv-encephalopathy are common causes of seizures. phenytoin is the most commonly prescribed anticonvulsant in this situation, although several patients may experience hypersensitivity reactions. The prognosis of seizure disorders in hiv-infected patients depends upon the underlying cause.
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2/51. toxoplasma gondii myelitis in a patient with adult T-cell leukemia-lymphoma.

    adult T cell leukemia-lymphoma (ATL) caused by HTLV-I may be associated with severe immunosupression and several opportunistic infections. Toxoplasmic encephalitis is a common central nervous system opportunistic infection in severely immunosupressed patients, however spinal cord involvement by this parasite is rare. In this paper, we report a case of toxoplasmic myelitis in a patient with ATL.
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3/51. Spinal toxoplasmic arachnoiditis associated with osteoid formation: a rare presentation of toxoplasmosis.

    STUDY DESIGN: An extremely rare presentation of an isolated spinal toxoplasmic arachnoiditis is described. OBJECTIVE: To draw attention to the fact that spinal arachnoid membranes may be a potential reservoir for toxoplasma gondii. SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA: central nervous system toxoplasmosis is a common manifestation in patients who are immunodeficient. Reports on the spinal toxoplasmosis are rare and focused on spinal cord involvement. methods: An adult patient presented with symptoms of spastic paraparesis that had begun 13 years before admission. Thoracic spinal magnetic resonance imaging showed small lesions in posterior subarachnoid space at Th7-Th8. A Th7-Th8 laminectomy was performed. Intradural-extramedullary lesions were excised. RESULTS: Clinical, immunologic, and pathologic examinations showed adhesive spinal arachnoiditis associated with osteoid formation caused by past toxoplasmic infection. There was no impairment of the immunologic defense system. CONCLUSION: Where no causative factor is found in serious spinal adhesive arachnoiditis, the possibility of spinal toxoplasmosis should also be investigated.
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4/51. Gastric toxoplasmosis in a patient with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. A case report and review of the literature.

    toxoplasmosis is a common opportunistic pathogen in patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). It usually presents with ocular, central nervous system, or pulmonary disease. Gastric toxoplasmosis is uncommon in AIDS patients, especially in the absence of central nervous system manifestations. In the few reported cases, patients have presented with abdominal pain and other digestive complaints that usually are attributed to the more common gastrointestinal manifestations of human immunodeficiency virus infection. We describe a 49-year-old man with AIDS who presented with abdominal pain, diarrhea, dry cough, and systemic symptoms and was diagnosed with toxoplasmosis by a gastric biopsy.
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5/51. Immune thrombocytopenic purpura associated with brucella and toxoplasma infections.

    Bacterial and protozoal infections can cause thrombocytopenia and may mimic idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura (ITP). brucella species and toxoplasma are among the infectious agents with protean clinical manifestations which may induce immune thrombocytopenia. In rare cases, thrombocytopenia can be severe and may result bleeding into the skin and from mucosal sites. Prompt recognition of this complication and aggressive therapy are essential, since the mortality associated with bleeding into the central nervous system is high. We report two patients with complaints of severe epistaxis and thrombocytopenia associated with brucellosis and toxoplasmosis. Thrombocytopenic purpura in these cases responded well to the high-dose corticosteroid treatment with platelet recovery within 2-3 days. For cases with infection-induced immune thrombocytopenic purpura, short-term high-dose corticosteroids may be applied as an urgent therapy without worsening of the clinical condition.
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6/51. toxoplasma gondii pneumonitis in patients infected with the human immunodeficiency virus.

    Pulmonary toxoplasmosis is a rarely recognized opportunistic infection in immunocompromised patients. A few case reports have described pulmonary toxoplasmosis in human immunodeficiency virus-infected patients in association with toxoplasma gondii central nervous system disease. We encountered six cases of pulmonary toxoplasmosis in human immunodeficiency virus-infected patients who presented with a protracted febrile illness, respiratory symptoms, and an abnormal chest roentgenogram in the absence of neurologic findings. No clinical or roentgenographic features distinguished T gondii pneumonitis from more common opportunistic pulmonary infections. As the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome epidemic progresses, the presenting illnesses have evolved. toxoplasma gondii must be considered a potential cause of pulmonary disease during the evaluation of human immunodeficiency virus-infected patients with respiratory symptoms.
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7/51. toxoplasma colitis in the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome.

    In patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS), toxoplasmosis almost exclusively involves the central nervous system (CNS), and extra-CNS organ infection is rare. We report a case of toxoplasma gondii colitis in a patient with AIDS characterized by the following: 1) onset of diarrhea was simultaneous with disseminated toxoplasmosis; 2) T. gondii was found in colonic biopsies, whereas other infectious causes of diarrhea had been ruled out; 3) diarrhea was cured by anti-toxoplasma therapy.
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8/51. Disseminated toxoplasmosis after bone marrow transplantation: high-resolution CT appearance.

    A 16-year-old female patient, who had undergone bone marrow transplantation 35 days earlier, presented with dry cough, dyspnea, and fever for 4 days. Chest radiography showed poorly-defined bilateral opacities. High-resolution CT revealed bilateral ground glass opacities with superimposed septal thickening and intralobular linear opacities. Laboratory results were nonspecific and empiric treatment with multiple drugs was initiated. The patient had no response to therapy and died 12 days after the admission. At autopsy the patient had disseminated toxoplasmosis with involvement of the central nervous system, myocardium, bone marrow, and lungs.
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9/51. Gastric toxoplasmosis as the presentation of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome.

    We report a case of a 39-year-old West African man with unknown human immunodeficiency virus status diagnosed with gastric toxoplasmosis as the presenting manifestation of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. toxoplasma gondii is common in severely immunosuppressed patients and most frequently involves the central nervous system, followed by the eye, myocardium and skeletal muscle, lungs, bone marrow, and peripheral blood. For unclear reasons, gastrointestinal involvement is exceedingly rare and occurs in the context of severe immunosuppression and disseminated disease. To our knowledge, this is the first report in the English literature of a patient with isolated, manifest gastric toxoplasmosis without evidence of concomitant cerebral or extracerebral involvement. It is important for both the clinician and the pathologist to maintain a high index of suspicion for toxoplasmosis in immunosuppressed patients presenting with nonspecific symptoms of gastritis and radiologic and endoscopic presence of thickened gastric folds with or without ulceration.
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10/51. Toxoplasmic meningoencephalitis in an immunocompetent host.

    central nervous system involvement due to toxoplasmosis in an immunocompetent host is very rare. We report a case of an immunocompetent patient who presented with suspected tuberculous meningoencephalitis but showed no clinical response to antitubercular therapy. Later, toxoplasmic meningoencephalitis was proved by positive serological testing for toxoplasmosis, supportive magnetic resonance imaging findings of the brain and a therapeutic response to co-trimoxazole and prednisolone. Therefore, toxoplasmosis should be considered in cases of suspected tuberculous meningoencephalitis that fail to respond to specific therapy.
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