Cases reported "Tracheal Diseases"

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1/7. Massive tracheal necrosis due to compression by an innominate artery aneurysm associated with a grade IV Chagasic megaesophagus and chronic duodenal ulcer.

    A 49-year-old man suffered necrosis of the cephalad tracheal segment due to compression by an innominate artery aneurysm. A peritracheal abscess, a grade IV chagasic megaesophagus, and a duodenal ulcer were also present. The patient underwent a three-stage surgical treatment, and 7 years later he is doing well, and breathing and eating normally.
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2/7. A case of relapsing polychondritis involving placement of an expandable metallic stent.

    Relapsing polychondritis is a relatively uncommon disease characterized by recurrence of progressive inflammation of cartilaginous structures. Laryngotracheal involvement occurs in 50-70% of cases, and occasionally results in acute airway obstruction. We reported a case of relapsing polychondritis with severe tracheal stenosis that was treated by the placement of two expandable metallic stents. A 58-year-old man was hospitalized with fever and breathing difficulties. A tracheostomy was performed and a silicone T-tube was placed. A diagnosis of relapsing polychondritis was made based on the biopsy from auricular and tracheal cartilages. Two expandable metallic stents were placed in the trachea to bilateral main bronchus. This dilated the airway lumen and resulted in the dyspnea disappearing completely. However, 18 months later a sudden massive hemorrhage occurred through the tracheostoma, and he died of respiratory failure. autopsy showed a tracheoinnominate artery fistula. We discuss the management of relapsing polychondritis with severe tracheal stenosis.
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3/7. Spontaneous tracheal rupture associated with acquired tracheobronchomalacia.

    We report here a very rare case of pneumomediastinum due to spontaneous tracheal rupture with tracheobronchomalacia. The patient was a 74-year-old woman who had suffered nocturnal dyspnea due to productive cough for five days prior to admission and had been treated with corticosteroids for five years at another hospital after being diagnosed with bronchial asthma. Computed tomographic scanning of the chest demonstrated over 1 cm longitudinal small air collections behind the upper trachea. Crescent-type tracheobronchomalacia was diagnosed by emergency bronchoscopy. At the right side of the upper trachea, a 1-cm laceration was revealed. fibrin glue (Bolheal, Kaketsuken, Kumamoto, japan) was sprayed on the laceration through an instrument of our design for endoscopic gluing and she was intubated for three days. Furthermore, treatment including administration of antibiotics, an antitussive agent, and a mucolytic agent, in addition to pulmonary physical therapy involving pursed lip breathing exercises and smoking cessation improved her complaints one month after admission.
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4/7. tracheomalacia associated with Mounier-Kuhn syndrome in the intensive care Unit: treatment with Freitag stent. A case report.

    tracheomalacia is a process characterized by softness of the supporting tracheal cartilages, by the extension of the posterior membranous wall and by reduction of the tracheal antero-posterior diameter. Exceptionally, tracheomalacia can be associated with tracheobronchomegaly or Mounier-Kuhn syndrome. Fibro-bronchoscopy represents the ''gold standard'' for diagnosis. The case of a 79-year-old male observed after hospitalization in a medical ward for chronic pulmonary obstructive disease (COPD) decompensation, and with basal left bronchopulmonary focus, is described. During this period, a progressive worsening of clinical conditions occurred, despite cortisone and antibiotic therapy, and the patient was transferred to the ICU for dyspnea, hypoxia, hypocapnia and with a diagnosis of pulmonary fibrosis. bronchoscopy, performed during spontaneous breathing, revealed tracheomalacia which was responsible for tracheal dynamic complete stenosis during expiration and dynamic subtotal stenosis of the left primary bronchus in the first tract, together with sputum retention. Moreover, this investigation confirmed the diagnosis of tracheobronchomegaly already seen on CT. It was suggested to place a Freitag stent, since the insertion of another model would not have had enough chance of stability, due to the enormous extension of the tracheal lumen and could not have guaranteed good clearance of the secretions. Seven days after this intervention, performed in an outpatients' setting, the patient was dismissed from the ICU, without the help of O2, with good ventilation, saturation in line with his age and good expectoration.
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5/7. Obligate mouth breathing during exercise. Nasal and laryngeal sarcoidosis.

    A young black man presented with simultaneous nasal and laryngeal sarcoidosis, each uncommon entities. Despite severe upper airway obstruction and emergent tracheostomy, there was an uncharacteristic rapid response to oral steroids alone. The patient's predominant initial complaint of early mouth breathing during routine army physical training demonstrates a symptom complex and an alternate mechanism of dyspnea to consider in sarcoidosis.
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6/7. Ulcerous tracheitis and mucus ball formation: a nearly fatal complication of a transtracheal oxygen catheter.

    A transtracheal oxygen catheter may be superior to a nasal cannula. In particular, transtracheal oxygen therapy (TTOT) shows a 50% saving of oxygen consumption, a significant reduction of energy cost of breathing, and an improved patient compliance due to esthetic benefits and avoidance of mucosal injury by a nasal cannula. Most complications so far reported have been of minor clinical importance and could be treated easily. However, using the SCOOP technique, a serious complication has recently occurred in 1 of our patients. Soon after starting TTOT with a SCOOP-1 catheter he developed an ulcerous tracheitis and a severe tracheal obstruction by a mucus ball. To prevent further respiratory emergencies TTOT finally was stopped and the catheter replaced again by a nasal cannula. There is evidence that tracheal injury as well as the formation of mucus balls may be promoted by regular brushing the preliminary SCOOP-1 catheter which usually is left in place during the first weeks. As a result of this harmful experience, we recommend to reconsider carefully the indication for TTOT in patients with copious bronchial secretions and to avoid cleaning of the SCOOP-1 catheter with the rigid wire brush.
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7/7. Difficult airway in a patient with Marshall-Smith syndrome.

    Marshall-Smith syndrome is a rare clinical disorder characterized by accelerated bone maturation, dysmorphic facial features, airway abnormalities and death in early infancy because of respiratory complications. Although patients with Marshall-Smith syndrome have several features with potential anaesthetic problems, previous reports about anaesthetic management of these patients do not exist. We present a case, in which severe hypoxia developed rapidly after routine anaesthesia induction in an eight-month-old male infant with this syndrome. After several unsuccessful attempts the airway was finally secured by blind oral intubation. After 2 weeks, laryngeal anatomy was examined with fibreoptic laryngoscopy which revealed significant laryngomalacia. laryngoscopy was performed without problems with ketamine anaesthesia and spontaneous breathing. The possibility of a compromised airway should always be borne in mind when anaesthetizing patients with Marshall-Smith syndrome. Anaesthesia maintaining spontaneous breathing is safest for children with this syndrome. If tracheal intubation or muscle relaxation is required, precautions are needed to maintain a patent airway. Muscle relaxants should possibly be avoided before intubation.
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