Cases reported "Tracheal Stenosis"

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1/22. Tracheobronchial involvement in relapsing polychondritis.

    Relapsing polychondritis (RPC) is a multisystem disorder of chondromalacia involving any cartilage. Respiratory tract involvement is the greatest threat to life. We report a patient with stenosis of the subglottic trachea and left main bronchus who suddenly ceased breathing. As this patient did not have any other clinical features of RPC, the diagnosis was difficult. CT showed circumferential worm-eaten-like thickening suggesting a deformity and edema of the tracheal mucosa. biopsy of the tracheal and thyroid cartilage revealed mild cartilage degeneration and infiltration with inflammatory cells. Therefore, the patient was diagnosed as having RPC. She is currently well 24 months after Montgomery T tube intubation with systemic steroids. Narrowing of the left main bronchus has not worsened.
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2/22. Intratracheal metastasis from malignant melanoma.

    Malignant melanoma is increasing in incidence in most countries. Distant metastases are common but intratracheal metastasis is extremely rare. We report a 54-year-old man who presented with increasing dyspnoea. Symptomatic treatment for asthma had been of no effect. bronchoscopy showed that trachea was nearly occluded by a tumoral mass, and biopsy proved this to be a metastasis of malignant melanoma. The man's breathing difficulties disappeared after local laser therapy, but 2 months later he presented with symptoms of multiple brain metastases.
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3/22. situs inversus totalis and corrected transposition of the great arteries [I,D,D] in association with a previously unreported vascular ring.

    A 3-month-old girl with "noisy breathing" was found to have situs inversus totalis, corrected transposition of the great arteries [I,D,D], and a vascular ring. The ring was composed of a left aortic arch with normal branching pattern and a right ligamentum arteriosum that extended from a diverticulum off the descending aorta and coursed retroesophageal and to the right to join the pulmonary artery. There was no circumflex component of the aorta or aberrant subclavian artery. The descending aorta was left sided. Compression of the esophagus and trachea was noted on contrast esophagram, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and at the time of surgery to divide the vascular ring. In association with her corrected transposition, the patient also was shown to have a mild Ebstein's deformity of the right-sided (systemic) atrioventricular valve and electrocardiographic evidence of Wolfe-Parkinson-White syndrome. The combination of situs inversus totalis, corrected transposition of the great arteries [I,D,D], and an aortic arch anomaly has not been previously reported. In addition, the aortic arch anomaly suggested by MRI imaging and confirmed at surgery has previously only been postulated to exist but to our knowledge never reported.
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4/22. Long-term follow-up after laser-induced endotracheal fire.

    The objective of this presentation is to outline long-term complications and their management in contrast to acute measures after endotracheal laser-induced fire. This case focuses on a 56-year-old patient in whom an endotracheal fire occurred during CO2 laser surgery. Despite local swelling and evidence of acute lung injury, the patient was extubated the following day under single-shot cortisone and inhalation of dispersed adrenaline under assisted spontaneous breathing. wound healing was assessed by regular flexible bronchoscopy and spirometry. Fourteen weeks after uneventful recovery, the patient presented with acute inspiratory stridor, related to a tracheal stenosis 2.5 cm distal to the glottic level. After tracheal end-to-end anastomosis, further follow-up was uneventful. Early extubation under ITU conditions avoided the need for tracheostomy and its sequelae. However, tracheal stenosis did not become apparent before week 14. While in acute management of laser-induced endotracheal fire a conservative approach was established successfully, the risk of further long-term complications implies the need for a prolonged follow-up regime even in cases of less extensive burns.
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5/22. Laryngotracheal reconstruction of the congenital glotto-subglottic stenosis with autogenous thyroid cartilage interposition: a case report.

    Surgical correction of grade III glotto-subglottic stenosis in a two-month-old girl was illustrated in a staged manner. Firstly, a silicone keel was placed via anterior thyrotomy following a tracheotomy. Secondly, laryngotracheal reconstruction was performed by interposing an autogenous thyroid cartilage anteriorly between the edges of the longitudinally divided cricoid cartilage and the upper tracheal rings. A stent was maintained for two months. The glottis and subglottis appeared patent and healed following removal of the stent. A meaningful voice and rather comfortable respiration were observed during a 13-month follow-up. The use of thyroid cartilage autograft offers many advantages in laryngotracheal reconstruction with considerably less technical difficulty.
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keywords = respiration
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6/22. Spontaneous respiration via an open trachea for resection of a high tracheal stenosis in a child.

    The successful management of tracheal stenosis requires compromise between the competing interests of the surgical and anaesthetic teams and the resources available. A seven-year-old girl with marked tracheal stenosis was successfully managed spontaneously breathing via an open trachea and a laryngeal mask. Anaesthesia was maintained by propofol infusion. When the trachea was opened, supplemental oxygen was administered via a modified cholangiocatheter placed into the distal segment. At no point was the trachea intubated.
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ranking = 10.012164286407
keywords = respiration, breathing
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7/22. A case of relapsing polychondritis involving placement of an expandable metallic stent.

    Relapsing polychondritis is a relatively uncommon disease characterized by recurrence of progressive inflammation of cartilaginous structures. Laryngotracheal involvement occurs in 50-70% of cases, and occasionally results in acute airway obstruction. We reported a case of relapsing polychondritis with severe tracheal stenosis that was treated by the placement of two expandable metallic stents. A 58-year-old man was hospitalized with fever and breathing difficulties. A tracheostomy was performed and a silicone T-tube was placed. A diagnosis of relapsing polychondritis was made based on the biopsy from auricular and tracheal cartilages. Two expandable metallic stents were placed in the trachea to bilateral main bronchus. This dilated the airway lumen and resulted in the dyspnea disappearing completely. However, 18 months later a sudden massive hemorrhage occurred through the tracheostoma, and he died of respiratory failure. autopsy showed a tracheoinnominate artery fistula. We discuss the management of relapsing polychondritis with severe tracheal stenosis.
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8/22. A giant retrosternal goiter with severe tracheal compression and superior vena cava syndrome: an operative experience.

    The peculiarities in the operation of a giant retrosternal goiter with severe tracheal compression and superior vena cava syndrome are highlighted in this report of a 53 year-old female with a large anterior neck swelling interfering with normal breathing and swallowing. From the initiation of the neck incision, mobilization of the gland and performing the subtotal excisions there was troublesome bleeding. pneumothorax resulting after delivery of the massive retrosternal portion was managed with an underwater-seal drainage tube.
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9/22. Vascularized hemitracheal autograft for laryngotracheal reconstruction: a new surgical technique based on the thyroid gland as a vascular carrier.

    BACKGROUND: The management of extensive laryngotracheal stenosis has been a challenge confronting head and neck surgeons for over a century. The key to the successful restoration of a stable airway is providing a cartilaginous infrastructure to provide support to withstand both the negative and positive lumenal pressures produced during normal respiration and deglutition. We introduce a novel technique for restoration of such defects. methods: The blood supply to the thyroid gland by way of the inferior thyroid artery and the superior thyroid artery and vein are mobilized for transfer. One half to two thirds of the circumference of the adjacent tracheal rings are mobilized on the basis of the requirements of the stenotic segment. This mucochondrial composite tracheal flap is advanced superiorly to the ipsilateral "laryngeal" region where insetting of the cartilage and the mucosa is performed. Primary reconstruction or, more likely, a staged repair of the secondary tracheal defect is performed. RESULTS: Three case reports are presented. The patients were successfully decannulated postoperatively, continue to have an adequate voice, and are tolerating a diet (3-27 months postreconstruction). CONCLUSION: A new surgical technique for reconstruction of benign laryngotracheal stenoses is introduced to restore phonatory capability and a stable airway. The composite thyroid-tracheal graft based on the inferior and superior thyroid arterial pedicles allows a single-staged, primary reconstruction of the hemilarynx with a well-vascularized composite thyrotracheal flap that allows resurfacing as well as replacement of the infrastructure of the glottis and subglottis. This technique would be an excellent method to restore the cricoid ring following partial resection for primary cartilaginous tumors.
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ranking = 2.2530410716018
keywords = respiration
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10/22. An unusual aspect of tracheal stenosis. Case report.

    lnjury of the tracheal mucosa at the decubitus site of the endotracheal tube cuff during prolonged endotracheal intubation and resulting fibrin deposits may predispose for the development of tracheal stenosis. Frequent endoscopic control examinations, following the increased use of dilation tracheostomy techniques, have revealed a considerable number of these once misrecognized complications in laryngeal and tracheal structures alike. The case reported here appears to confirm this sequence of events. Timely operative endoscopy using a pair of pincers mounted on a rigid endoscope permitted the removal of the fibrin membrane causing the tracheal lumen stenosis and allowed us to achieve complete and definitive recalibration of the trachea, with restoration of spontaneous breathing. cortisone therapy prolonged for 5 days probably prevented recurrence of the stenosis. Follow-up was carried out in 3 phases. The 1(st) phase included early control using tracheal endoscopy; 2(nd) comprised neck CT scan to examine the tracheal lumen 15 days after endoscopic control, and the 3rd phase involved medical examination after about 3 months and neck radiography in 2 projections.
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