Cases reported "Tracheal Stenosis"

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1/597. Emergency resection of distal tracheal stenosis. A case report.

    A case of tracheal stenosis secondary to tracheostomy and respirator treatment is presented. The stenosis caused acute respiratory failure, which made immediate surgical intervention mandatory. It is stressed that usually the tracheal lumen is severely reduced when the stenosis causes alarming symptoms. Rational treatment, which must be instituted immediately, consists of resection of the stenotic area and end-to-end anastomosis. ( info)

2/597. Symptomatic tracheal stenosis in burns.

    tracheal stenosis in burns is rare and usually results from prolonged intubation or tracheostomy. inhalation injury itself has the potential risk of tracheal stenosis. We reviewed the records of 1878 burn patients during 1987 to 1995 and found seven with tracheal stenosis (0.37%) after an average of 4.4 years follow up. There were 4 males and 3 females with an average age of 27.3 years. The tracheal stenosis developed 1-22 months after burn (average 7 months). Five patients had their inhalation injury confirmed by bronchoscopic examination. The incidence of tracheal stenosis among inhalation injury patients was 5.49% (5/92). Six patients needed intubation in the initial stage either for respiratory distress or prophylaxis, with an average duration of 195.2 h. In addition to prolonged intubation, the presence of inhalation injury, repeated intubations and severe neck scar contractures are also contributors to tracheal stenosis in burns. We favor T-tube insertion as the first treatment choice; permanent tracheostomy was unsatisfactory in our study. ( info)

3/597. Localised upper airway obstruction in a patient with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome.

    We describe a case of rapidly progressive upper airway obstruction due to tracheal Pseudomonas abscesses in a patient with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. The case highlights the aggressive nature of pseudomonas infections and the difficulty of eradicating this organism in patients infected with the human immunodeficiency virus. ( info)

4/597. Intrathoracic retroesophageal goiter causing tracheal stenosis.

    A 65-year-old woman presented with stridor revealed a mass on a chest X-ray on physical examination. A huge goiter arising in the left lobe of the thyroid had extended retroesophageally and across the midline to the right side of the posterior mediastinum far caudally down to the level of the carina. The trachea was remarkably compressed. Surgery was performed via a combined thoracic and cervical approach, and the tumor was completely removed with resultant relief from stridor. The patient is presently doing well at 1 year after the operation. ( info)

5/597. A bronchogenic cyst in an infant causing tracheal occlusion and cardiac arrest.

    A 3-month-old infant treated for 3 weeks for suspected bronchiolitis, developed episodes of profound desaturation. A lateral X-ray showed displacement and compression of the trachea. Respiratory arrest, from which she was successfully resuscitated, occurred just before MRI scan. The mass was removed at thoracotomy and a histological diagnosis of a bronchogenic cyst was made. Mediastinal masses in babies are relatively rare, and the situation in which they present with acute respiratory distress may prove extremely challenging to the anaesthetist. Bronchogenic cysts are difficult to diagnose pre-operatively and awareness may assist in the peri-operative management of these infants. ( info)

6/597. Percutaneous dilation of tracheal stenosis.

    A high-grade complex tracheal stenosis distal to a tracheostomy tube occurred in a patient with a chronic vegetative state. The stenosis was easily and rapidly dilated at bedside using commercially available percutaneous tracheostomy kit dilators. Following tracheal dilation, a larger tracheostomy tube was inserted, resulting in the splinting of the stenotic area. To my knowledge, this is the first report of such a bedside technique for the dilation of a tracheal stenosis through a tracheostomy. This technique may provide a temporary relief from tracheal obstruction as long as the stenosis is within the reach of the dilator. ( info)

7/597. A case of follicular thyroid cancer with tracheal stenosis responded to external radiation therapy.

    We report the case of a 70-year-old man with follicular carcinoma of the thyroid who complained of worsening dyspnea and was successfully treated by external radiation therapy. The total dose given was 61 Gy in 28 fractions. This case suggests that external radiation therapy is effective for the management of differentiated thyroid cancer with critical stenosis of the trachea that is inoperable and difficult to treat with radioiodine. ( info)

8/597. Stridor in a 6-week-old infant caused by right aortic arch with aberrant left subclavian artery.

    BACKGROUND: Persistent infant stridor, seal-like cough, and difficulty feeding can be the initial signs of right aortic arch with an aberrant left subclavian artery. This congenital cardiovascular abnormality results in the development of a vascular ring that encircles the trachea and esophagus. methods: A case report is presented that describes the evaluation and care of a 6-week-old male infant whose condition was diagnosed as right aortic arch and aberrant left subclavian artery after he was brought to the family practice clinic with a history of persistent stridor. This case report involved a patient seen in the author's outpatient clinic during a well-child check. Data were obtained from the patient's medical record and review of his radiologic diagnostic tests. medline and Index Medicus literature searches were conducted for the years 1966 to the present, using the key words "stridor" and "vascular ring," with cross-references for earlier articles. RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS: Persistent or recurrent stridor associated with feeding difficulties should prompt an investigation for a vascular ring. In general, an anteroposterior and lateral neck radiograph and a posteroanterior and lateral chest radiograph are usually the initial diagnostic tests to evaluate stridor. Persistent stridor and new-onset regurgitation of formula in a 6-week-old infant prompted an escalation of the patient's workup to include a barium swallow, which subsequently showed compression of the esophagus caused by a vascular ring. In some cases direct observation with a laryngoscope or bronchoscope might be necessary to determine the cause of stridor. Indications for hospitalization of patients with stridor include stridor at rest, dyspnea, actual or suspected epiglottis, repeatedly awakening from sleep with stridor, a history of rapid progression of symptoms, toxic appearance, and apneic or cyanotic episodes. The primary care provider should be familiar with the evaluation and management for patients with the complaint of persistent or recurrent stridor. ( info)

9/597. Anterior mediastinal masses: an anaesthetic challenge.

    A patient with a large anterior mediastinal mass with minimal respiratory symptoms presented for a diagnostic biopsy of the mass. A pre-operative thoracic computed tomographic scan demonstrated narrowing of the distal trachea, and right and left main stem bronchi. An awake intubation was done. Thiopentone and muscle relaxant were given and surgery commenced. High airway pressure developed and ventilation became difficult, although oxygenation remained satisfactory throughout. Anaesthetic implications are discussed. We recommend that patients with more than 50% obstruction of the airway at the level of the lower trachea and main bronchi have their femoral vessels cannulated in readiness for cardiopulmonary bypass. ( info)

10/597. life-threatening airway obstruction caused by a retropharyngeal haematoma.

    We present the case of a 68-year-old woman who had a large cervicomediastinal haematoma that caused life-threatening airway obstruction. Retropharyngeal haematoma may occur in any age group and following a variety of causes. Retropharyngeal haematomas must be considered as a cause of airway obstruction following common injuries such as blunt cervical trauma or internal jugular vein cannulation. A high index of suspicion and early lateral neck X-ray is essential for safe management of this rare but potentially life-threatening injury. ( info)
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