Cases reported "Tracheoesophageal Fistula"

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1/121. tracheoesophageal fistula caused by a self-expanding esophageal stent.

    A patient is presented who had previously undergone an esophagectomy for an adenocarcinoma of distal esophagus. He experienced repeated strictures at the esophagogastric anastomosis at 22 cm. After multiple dilatations, a self-expanding metal stent was placed. Four months later the upper edge of the stent eroded through the esophagus into the trachea, forming a tracheoesophageal fistula. Muscle flap repair was successful.
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2/121. anesthesia for insertion of a Dumon stent in a patient with a large tracheo-esophageal fistula.

    PURPOSE: To present the anesthetic management for the insertion of a Dumon silicon stent to the trachea of a patient with a large tracheo-esophageal fistula. The aim of the stent insertion was to seal the fistula in order to prevent aspiration of esophageal content and subsequent pneumonitis. CLINICAL FEATURES: A 45-yr-old man with a large tracheo-esophageal fistula was scheduled for the insertion of the Dumon stent. Since placement of the stent necessitates the insertion of a rigid bronchoscope, under general anesthesia, with its tip just proximal to the fistula, controlled ventilation was expected to be difficult to achieve because of the diversion of oxygen through the large fistula to the esophagus. We successfully ventilated the lungs, after the fistula was sealed using a large balloon which was inserted in the esophagus, and the stent insertion was completed uneventfully. CONCLUSION: anesthesia for procedures involving the central airway is challenging. This report describes a simple and practical method to facilitate ventilation by temporary seal of a tracheo-esophageal fistula using a modified esophageal balloon.
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3/121. Esophageal lung with multiple congenital anomalies: conundrums in diagnosis and management.

    BACKGROUND/PURPOSE: Communicating bronchopulmonary foregut malformations (CBPFM) are a diverse group of potentially devastating congenital anomalies with anatomy that may be difficult to delineate. The authors present a case that illustrates conundrums in the diagnosis and management of these complex disorders. methods: A term baby had esophageal atresia (EA), tracheoesophageal fistula (TEF), and tetralogy of fallot. Initially, a gastrostomy was performed, and a balloon catheter was inserted through the endotracheal tube to occlude the fistula until the patient was hemodynamically stable. Subsequently, the fistula was ligated. Postoperatively, the left lung collapsed, and bronchoscopy showed an atretic left mainstem bronchus. Repeat thoracotomy showed that the fistula ligation was intact. air was introduced through the gastrostomy tube, and, surprisingly, the left lung inflated, indicating the left mainstem bronchus arose from the esophagus distal to the ligated TEF. RESULTS: Despite reopening this fistula, ventilation remained poor, and support was withdrawn. autopsy findings confirmed a unilobed left lung arising from the esophagus, EA, TEF, an atretic left mainstem bronchus, tetralogy of fallot, and digeorge syndrome. CONCLUSIONS: This is the first report of a combination of EA and distal TEF with a second CBPFM involving the esophagus and the entire left lung. Successful correction of these anomalies will require extensive delineation of the anatomy to plan an operative strategy.
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4/121. A novel intubation technique for tracheoesophageal fistula in adults.

    PURPOSE: To describe a novel technique of tracheal intubation and ventilation in an adult patient with a large tracheoesophageal fistula at the level of the carina. CLINICAL FEATURES: A 59 yr old woman with squamous cell carcinoma of the esophagus developed a large (2 cm diameter) tracheoesophageal fistula after radiotherapy. The level of her fistula precluded traditional use of a double-lumen endobronchial tube. intubation and ventilation were managed with two endobronchial tubes. The ability to ventilate or collapse each lung individually was preserved and anesthesia and surgery proceeded uneventfully. CONCLUSION: Double endobronchial intubation is described to manage anesthesia in an adult patient with a tracheoesophageal fistula at the level of the carina.
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5/121. Gastric tube-to-tracheal fistula closed with a latissimus dorsi myocutaneous flap.

    A gastric tube-to-airway fistula is a very rare complication after esophageal reconstruction. A patient with a gastric tube-to-tracheal fistula that developed more than 9 years after surgery for cancer of the cervical esophagus was treated with transposition of a pedicled latissimus dorsi myocutaneous flap. Careful perioperative respiratory management helped save the patient's life.
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6/121. A successful one-stage reconstruction of the esophagus in a newborn with a long gap esophageal atresia and tracheo-esophageal fistula.

    A method of one-stage surgery of long gap esophageal atresia was applied in a newborn child. An anterior muco-muscular flap was moulded from the upper pouch and transposed to the lower pouch of the esophagus. The technique allowed the tension in the anastomosis between the two parts of the esophagus to be reduced. The child had no feeding abnormalities during the follow-up till the age of 5 years.
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7/121. An unusual cause of tracheal stenosis.

    PURPOSE: To report a large chronic tracheal foreign body, causing tracheal stenosis in an 11-yr-old girl. CLINICAL FEATURES: The history was suggestive of obstructive airways disease with secondary bronchiectasis. Physical findings were crepitations and rhonchi all over the chest. blood gases were normal. Chest X-ray showed bronchiectasis and a ventilation perfusion scan identified a tracheo-esophageal fistula. During anesthesia to confirm this, intubation and ventilation were difficult because of tracheal stenosis. The hypoventilation resulted in severe hypercarbia and acidosis. A subsequent CT scan showed a stenosis of 2 mm diameter and 1 cm length in the middle third of trachea, bronchiectasis, and an air filled pocket between the trachea and esophagus. PFT showed a severe obstruction. Antitubercular treatment which was started on the presumptive diagnosis of tuberculous stenosis and tracheoesophageal fistula caused a delay with deterioration of patient from intermittent dyspnea to orthopnea with severe hypecarbia and acidosis. The anesthetic management of the tracheal reconstruction was difficult due to her moribund condition even after medical treatment, the short length of the trachea above the obstruction, its severity and lack of resources for alternative techniques. A large foreign body was found lying obliquely in the trachea dividing it into an anterior narrow airway mimicking a stenosed trachea, and a wider posterior blind passage. CONCLUSION: The anesthetic consequences were peculiar to the unexpected etiology of the stenosis and poor general condition of the patient. Minor details like the tracheal tube bevel and ventilatory pattern became vitally important.
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8/121. An uncommon association of H-type tracheoesophageal fistula with infantile hypertrophic pyloric stenosis.

    Although infantile hypertrophic pyloric stenosis following esophageal atresia repair is known, infantile hypertrophic pyloric stenosis following H-type tracheoesophageal fistula has not been encountered previously. A case of H-type tracheoesophageal fistula and infantile hypertrophic pyloric stenosis is presented. The patient, operated on for H-type fistula, a rare congenital anomaly of the esophagus, on the tenth day of life was readmitted 19 days later because of continuous vomiting after every feeding. The clinical findings and physical and radiological examinations revealed infantile hypertrophic pyloric stenosis which required surgical treatment. It is suggested that the association of H-type tracheoesophageal fistula with infantile hypertrophic pyloric stenosis is coincidental, given the estimated incidence of one in every 84,375,000 males and 337,500,000 females.
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9/121. tracheoesophageal fistula after blunt chest trauma: successful diagnosis by computed tomography.

    A case of tracheoesophageal fistula after blunt trauma is reported. A 27-year-old man who suffered from an automobile traffic accident complained of strong choking after drinking water. Computed tomography demonstrated a defect between the esophagus and the trachea just above the carina. Acquired tracheoesophageal fistula was suspected and promptly confirmed by contrast esophagogram. The defects of the trachea and esophagus was repaired by primary suture and buttressed using a pedicled intercostal flap. The postoperative course was uneventful.
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10/121. Oesophageal perforation presenting as oesophageal atresia in a premature neonate following difficult intubation.

    Iatrogenic oesophageal perforation in neonates is well recognized in the medical and surgical literature with intubation injury listed as a possible contributing mechanism besides nasogastric tube placement and suctioning. Diagnosis can be difficult and sometimes confused with other entities. With early diagnosis, nonsurgical management often leads to complete resolution in neonates. We report the case of a 1-day-old premature neonate who was brought to the operating room with the preliminary diagnosis of proximal oesophageal atresia with stump perforation and distal tracheo-esophageal fistula. His intubation for respiratory distress at birth had been difficult due to Pierre-Robin sequence with micrognathia. Oesophagoscopy in the operating room revealed a patent oesophagus but perforations in the pharynx and in the proximal oesophagus with the nasogastric tube entering the pharyngeal perforation. Oesophageal perforation and the limitations of the difficult airway algorithm in small neonates are discussed.
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