Cases reported "Translocation, Genetic"

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1/27. Duplication of 7p21.2-->pter due to maternal 7p;21q translocation: implications for critical segment assignment in the 7p duplication syndrome.

    We describe a 1-year-old boy with mental and physical retardation, a large anterior fontanel, brachycephaly with flat occiput, short and stubby fingers, generalized hypotonia, ocular hypertelorism, low-nasal bridge, long philtrum, high-narrow palate, apparently low-set ears, and a small mandible. cytogenetic analysis utilizing high resolution chromosome banding technique showed an unbalanced karyotype consisting of 46,XY,add(21)(q22.3) that originated from maternal balanced translocation between chromosomes 7 and 21. fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) using micro-dissected library probe pool from chromosome 7 confirmed the additional material on 21q was derived from chromosome 7. Our results indicated that the patient had an unbalanced translocation, 46,XY, der(21)t(7;21)(p21.2;q22.3)mat, which resulted in duplication for distal 7p. Our patient is similar to reported cases with a 7p15-->pter or larger duplication of 7p, suggesting that the critical segment causing the characteristic phenotype of 7p duplication syndrome, including large anterior fontanel, exists at 7p21.2 or 7p21.2-->pter.
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2/27. Molecular cloning of translocation breakpoints in a case of constitutional translocation t(11;22)(q23;q11) and preparation of probes for preimplantation genetic diagnosis.

    in vitro fertilization (IVF) centres with preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD) programmes are often confronted with the problem of identifying chromosomal abnormalities in interphase cells biopsied from preimplantation embryos of carriers of a reciprocal translocation. The present authors have developed a DNA testing based approach to analyse embryos from translocation carriers, and this report describes breakpoint-spanning probes to detect abnormalities in cases of the most common human translocation (i.e. the t(11;22)(q23;q11)). Screening a yeast artificial chromosome (YAC) library for probes covering the respective breakpoint regions in the patient lead to probes for the breakpoint on chromosome 11q23. The physically mapped YAC and bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) clones from chromosome 22 were then integrated with the cytogenetic map, which allowed localization of the breakpoint on chromosome 22q11 to an interval of less than 84 kb between markers D22S184 and KI457 and to prepare probes suitable for interphase cell analysis. In summary, breakpoint localization could be accomplished in about 4 weeks with additional time needed to optimize probes for use in PGD.
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3/27. A partial trisomy 15q due to 15;17 translocation detected by conventional cytogenetic and FISH techniques.

    We report a case having multiple abnormalities including the simultaneous presence of the heart defect and central nerve system abnormalities, which has been reported in a few cases, and with a partial trisomy 15q. Partial trisomy 15q has been inherited from a balanced translocation carried by his phenotypically normal father, detected by traditional banding and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). Application of FISH using whole chromosome specific library probes, locus specific and repetitive probes allowed us to detect the translocation between chromosomes 15q and 17q. Simultaneous application of probes revealed the position of the translocation. Interestingly, in addition to the chromosomes 15 pericentromeric signals, the use of chromosome 15 beta-satellite III probe demonstrated an extra signal on chromosome 14 in both metaphase, and lighted three signals interphase nuclei which was inherited from his father. This patient is compared with other partial trisomy 15q patients reported in the literature. The results are also discussed in relation to genetic counselling for the possible relation of chromosome abnormality and clinical findings.
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4/27. A de novo complex chromosomal rearrangement with a translocation 7;9 and 8q insertion in a male carrier with no infertility.

    A de novo complex chromosomal rearrangement (CCR) involving chromosomes 7, 8 and 9 in a male carrier was ascertained through his healthy wife's recurrent spontaneous abortions. Six pregnancies over eight years resulted in four spontaneous abortions and two livebirths who died perinatally due to abnormal vital signs. Cytogenetic analyses utilizing high resolution chromosome banding technique showed a deletion of band in a der(7) chromosome and an extra band inserting at 8q21.2. Another extra band was also observed at the band 9p24, but it could not be karyotypically determined. Fluorescent in-situ hybridization using chromosome 7 and 8 specific microdissected library as probes confirmed the insertion of a segment from the translocated chromosome 7 into a chromosome 8, and additionally revealed a translocation between chromosomes 7 and 9. The karyotype of the CCR carrier was determined as 46,XY,t(7;9)(q22;p24),ins(8;7)(q21.2;q22q32).ish der(9)(wcp7 );ins(8;7)(wcp8 ,wcp7 ). Comparing with previously reported male CCR carriers with our case, we conclude that male CCR carriers may not always present with infertility or subfertility phenotypes. This may suggest that rare transmission of male carriers could result from abnormal chromosomal rearrangements during meiosis and gametogenesis in addition to frequent infertility.
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5/27. Identification of a novel fusion gene, TTL, fused to ETV6 in acute lymphoblastic leukemia with t(12;13)(p13;q14), and its implication in leukemogenesis.

    ETS variant gene 6 (ETV6)/translocation, ETS, leukemia (TEL)-involving chromosomal translocations are frequently observed in various hematologic neoplasms. We describe here a novel ETV6-involving translocation, t(12;13)(p13;q14), found in the case of acute lymphoblastic leukemia, in which ETV6 fused with a previously unknown gene, named Twelve-thirteen Translocation leukemia gene (TTL), at 13q14. TTL was weakly but ubiquitously expressed in normal human tissues as detected by reverse transcribed-PCR. Three TTL splicing forms were identified, TTL-T from a human testis cDNA library, with an open-reading frame of 402 bp encoding 133 amino acids (aa), and TTL-B1 and -B2 from a human brain cDNA library. These proteins have no homology to known proteins. In leukemic cells from the patient, both reciprocal fusion transcripts, ETV6/TTL and TTL/ETV6, were expressed. The predominant fusion transcript, TTL/ETV6-1, encodes a predicted 530 aa fusion protein containing 89 aa of the N-terminal TTL fusing to the helix-loop-helix domain and ETS-binding domain of ETV6. Although the function of TTL is yet to be elucidated, our findings will provide another insight into the molecular pathogenesis of leukemia having ETV6-involving translocations.
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6/27. A new gene, BCM, on chromosome 16 is fused to the interleukin 2 gene by a t(4;16)(q26;p13) translocation in a malignant T cell lymphoma.

    A t(4;16)(q26;p13.1) chromosome translocation found in tumour cells from a patient with a T cell lymphoma was shown to rearrange the interleukin 2 gene, normally located on chromosome band 4q26, with sequences from chromosome band 16p13.1. A cDNA library of tumour cells was screened with an interleukin 2 gene-specific probe. Three clones were isolated, which consisted, from 5' to 3', of the three first exons of the interleukin 2 gene followed by a 16p13 in-frame sequence encoding 181 amino acids. A probe derived from this sequence detected a 1.2 kb transcript in various cell lines exhibiting mature B lymphoid cell features, but this was not detected in other cell lines representative of other haematopoietic lineages, or in other organs. For this reason, the novel gene was termed BCM for B cell maturation. The open reading frame of BCM normal cDNA predicted a 184 amino acid protein with a single transmembrane domain which had no homology with any protein sequence stored in data banks. Our data indicate that BCM is a new gene whose expression coincides with B cell terminal maturation.
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7/27. Analysis of reciprocal translocations by chromosome painting: applications and limitations of the technique.

    Fluorescent in situ hybridization with chromosome-specific DNA libraries (chromosome painting) is an important new method for assessing chromosome rearrangements. In the research presented in this paper, two familial reciprocal translocations have been studied in the balanced and unbalanced forms, using both traditional G-banding techniques and chromosome painting. Although for each case two chromosomes were involved in the rearrangement, we found that only one chromosome library was suitable for detecting the translocation. These findings illustrate both the potential and the limitations of chromosome painting as a diagnostic tool in cytogenetics.
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8/27. Isolation of chromosome-specific DNA sequences from an Alu polymerase chain reaction library to define the breakpoint in a patient with a constitutional translocation t(1;13) (q22;q12) and ganglioneuroblastoma.

    We describe the cytogenetic and molecular characterization of a t(1;13)(q22;q12) constitutional rearrangement occurring in a patient with a relatively benign form of neuroblastoma, called ganglioneuroblastoma. Somatic cell hybrids were generated between mouse 3t3 cells and a lymphoblastoid cell line from this patient, D.G. One isolated subclone, DGF27C11, contained the derivative chromosome, 1pter-q22::13q12-qter, but no other material from either chromosome 1 or 13. Using available dna probes the 13 breakpoint was assigned proximal to all reported markers. In order to generate flanking markers to define this translocation further, an Alu polymerase chain reaction library was constructed from a somatic cell hybrid containing only the proximal, 13pter-13q14, region of chromosome 13. Seven unique sequences have been isolated from the library, three of which lie below and four of which lie above the 13q12 breakpoint. More precise mapping of the distal markers was achieved using a panel of somatic cell hybrids with overlapping deletions of chromosome 13. The paucity of probes in the 1q22 region has made a precise assignment of this breakpoint difficult, however it has been shown to lie distal to c-SKI and proximal to APOA2. This refined characterization of the breakpoint is a prerequisite for its cloning, which may yield genes important in the pathogenesis of ganglioneuroblastoma.
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9/27. Reassessment of two apparent deletions of chromosome 16p to an ins(11;16) and a t(1;16) by chromosome painting.

    Two apparent deletions of the short arm of chromosome 16 were studied by in situ hybridisation using biotinylated DNA from a chromosome 16 specific cosmid library (chromosome painting). One abnormality was delineated as a t(1;16)(p36;p12) and the other as a ins(11;16)(q13;p13.13p13.3). Apparently unbalanced de novo abnormalities detected by classical cytogenetic procedures should be interpreted with caution. in situ hybridization using DNA from chromosome specific libraries provides the appropriate technology to delineate such abnormalities.
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10/27. A synovial sarcoma with a complex t(X;18;5;4) and a break in the ornithine aminotransferase (OAT)L1 cluster on Xp11.2.

    The initial cytogenetic analysis of a biphasic synovial sarcoma revealed complex anomalies involving six different chromosomes: 46,Y,t(X;18;5;4)(p11;q11;p13;q12),t(2;5)(q35;q11). After fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) analysis, using chromosome X-specific plasmid library and YAC probes, the situation appeared to be even more complex, with an insertion of part of the x chromosome short arm into the der(5)t(5;18). In spite of these complex chromosomal rearrangements, the Xp11 breakpoint could be mapped to within the ornithine aminotransferase (OAT)L1 cluster, very similar to that reported previously for the standard t(X;18)(p11;q11) in synovial sarcomas. These findings suggest common pathogenetic pathways in these cytogenetically different but morphologically similar tumors.
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