Cases reported "Translocation, Genetic"

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1/121. prenatal diagnosis of a satellited non-acrocentric chromosome derived from a maternal translocation (10;13)(p13;p12) and review of literature.

    We identified a familial balanced translocation involving chromosomes 10 and 13 through the finding of a satellited 10p chromosome in a fetus. The phenotype of two unbalanced products of the translocation resulting in pure monosomy 10p13 and trisomy 10p13 is described. This familial case and two of our unreported cases are discussed in the light of other prenatal observations with satellited non-acrocentric chromosomes reported in the literature.
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2/121. Cytogenetic and molecular characterization of T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia as a second tumor after anaplastic large-cell lymphoma in a boy.

    We report a case of acute T-cell lymphoblastic leukemia which developed in a boy 8.5 years after successful treatment for anaplastic large-cell lymphoma. Cytogenetic and molecular characterizations of the second tumor were performed. The cytogenetic investigation revealed a complex pattern of karyotypic alterations, including double minutes, ring chromosomes, and a duplication of the p21-32 region of chromosome 1. The microsatellite dna analysis excluded rearrangement or deletion of the TAL1 gene in the tumor cells; rearrangements of the MLL gene were excluded by Southern blot analysis. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of T-cell lymphoblastic leukemia arising after treatment of CD 30 anaplastic large-cell lymphoma. The different T-cell receptor rearrangement evidenced in the two tumors indicates that this second malignancy most likely emerged de novo, but was plausibly related to the previous radiation and chemotherapy.
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3/121. Chromosome 16 inversion-associated translocation: two new cases.

    Two patients with chromosome 16 inversion-associated translocation were studied with conventional cytogenetic and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) techniques. The same chromosome 16 was involved in inversion and translocation in both patients. The chromosome translocation breakpoint was located within the heterochromatin of chromosome 16 but outside the alpha satellite domain in the t(10;16) of the first patient, whereas it was outside the heterochromatin area in the second case with t(1;16). These two types of rearrangements may be due to different mechanisms and illustrate the possible difficulties in recognizing the chromosome 16 inversion without FISH studies.
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4/121. Two complex translocations in chronic granulocytic leukemia involving chromosomes 22, 9, and a third chromosome.

    Among 13 Ph-positive cases of chronic granulocytic leukemia (CGL), banding studies revealed two with complex rearrangements involving translocation of the long arm of number 22 to another autosome and a segment of that chromosome translocated to the long arm of number 9. In a patient with both CGL and sickle cell anemia, the 3-way rearrangement involved chromosomes 5, 9, and 22; and he also had a second philadelphia chromosome and two constitutional variants: pericentric inversion of the other number 9 chromosome and satellite polymorphism in the G group. The karyotype of the leukemic cells was interpreted as: 47,XY,inv(9) (p11q13),t(5;9;22)(q13;q34;q11) del(22)(q11). In the second patient, the complex translocation in the Ph-positive cells involved chromosomes 3, 9, and 22, resulting in a karyotype interpreted as: 46,XX,t(3;9;22)(p21;q34;q11). Several reports indicate that an abnormality of chromosome 9 is not essential for the development of Ph-positive CGL, but the very high frequency of its involvement (including these unusual translocations) suggests that some type of non-random somatic association may exist between 9q and 22q which makes simultaneous breakage likely. Attempts to correlate specific types of pH chromosome rearrangements with the clinical course of CGL must await the identification of more cases and longer follow-up.
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5/121. Recombinant balanced and unbalanced translocations as a consequence of a balanced complex chromosomal rearrangement involving eight breakpoints in four chromosomes.

    We report on a family with a balanced complex chromosomal rearrangement (CCR) involving eight breakpoints between chromosomes 6, 7, 18, and 21 in the father. All three sons inherited one derivative chromosome from the father and in addition each inherited a different recombinant chromosome resulting in a partial trisomy 6q in the first, an apparently balanced karyotype in the second, and a partial trisomy 7q in the third son. fluorescence in situ hybridisation (FISH) and microsatellite analysis were essential for the identification of the breakpoints. In addition, the results were confirmed by a 24-colour FISH experiment using the spectral karyotyping (SKYtrade mark) system. Paternal origin of the de novo CCR in the father was demonstrated for the first time by haplotype analysis. This is the second report of a CCR leading to simpler but unbalanced translocations in offspring as a consequence of recombination during gametogenesis, and the first report of a family case of CCR exhibiting as many as eight breakpoints in the transmitting carrier. The initial prediction that viable offspring would be quite unlikely had to be revised after the birth of three children. Genetic counselling of carriers of balanced complex rearrangements has to consider a higher probability for unbalanced recombinations than has been so far commonly assumed.
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6/121. Characterization of the human glutamate receptor subunit 3 gene (GRIA3), a candidate for bipolar disorder and nonspecific X-linked mental retardation.

    The X-chromosome breakpoint in a female patient with a balanced translocation t(X;12)(q24;q15), bipolar affective disorder and mental retardation was mapped within the glutamate receptor 3 (GRIA3) gene by fluorescence in situ hybridization. The GRIA3 cDNA of 5894 bp was cloned, and the gene structure and pattern of expression were determined. The most abundant GRIA3 transcript is composed of 17 exons. An additional 5 exons (2a, 2b, 5a, 5b, and 5c) from the 5' end of the GRIA3 open reading frame were identified by EST analysis (ESTs AI379066 and AA947914). Two new polymorphic microsatellite repeats, (TC)(n=12-26) and (AC)(n=15-19), were identified within GRIA3 5' and 3'UTRs. No mutations were detected in families segregating disorders mapping across GRIA3, one with X-linked bipolar affective disorder (BP) and one with a nonspecific X-linked mental retardation (MRX27). To assess the possibility of the involvement of the GRIA3 gene in familial cases of complex BP, a large set of 373 individuals from 40 pedigrees segregating BP were genotyped using closely linked (DXS1001) and intragenic (DXS1212 and GRIA3 3' UTR (AC)(n))) GRIA3 STR markers. No evidence of linkage was found by parametric lod score analysis (the highest lod score was 0. 3 at DXS1212, using the dominant transmission model) or by affected sib-pair analysis.
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7/121. trisomy of the long arm of chromosome 1 resulting in a dicentric derivative (6)t(1;6) chromosome in a child with myelodysplastic syndrome following treatment for a primitive neuroectodermal tumor.

    We report the clinical, hematologic, and cytogenetic findings for a child with secondary myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) after treatment for a primitive neuroectodermal tumor. At the time of conversion to MDS, conventional cytogenetics revealed an unbalanced der(6)t(1;6) that resulted in trisomy of the long arm of chromosome 1 and partial monosomy and duplication of 6p. Using alpha satellite probes, fluorescence in situ hybridization of bone marrow cells showed that the rearranged chromosome contained the centromeres of both chromosomes 1 and 6, thus forming a dic(1;6) resulting in trisomy 1q. This report is the first to describe a case of childhood secondary myelodysplastic syndrome associated with a trisomy 1q involving chromosome 6.
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8/121. A partial trisomy 15q due to 15;17 translocation detected by conventional cytogenetic and FISH techniques.

    We report a case having multiple abnormalities including the simultaneous presence of the heart defect and central nerve system abnormalities, which has been reported in a few cases, and with a partial trisomy 15q. Partial trisomy 15q has been inherited from a balanced translocation carried by his phenotypically normal father, detected by traditional banding and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). Application of FISH using whole chromosome specific library probes, locus specific and repetitive probes allowed us to detect the translocation between chromosomes 15q and 17q. Simultaneous application of probes revealed the position of the translocation. Interestingly, in addition to the chromosomes 15 pericentromeric signals, the use of chromosome 15 beta-satellite III probe demonstrated an extra signal on chromosome 14 in both metaphase, and lighted three signals interphase nuclei which was inherited from his father. This patient is compared with other partial trisomy 15q patients reported in the literature. The results are also discussed in relation to genetic counselling for the possible relation of chromosome abnormality and clinical findings.
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9/121. cerebellar ataxia and mental retardation in a child with an inherited satellited chromosome 4q.

    We identified a case of familial satellited chromosome 4q through a child with cerebellar ataxia and mental retardation. No loss of genetic material could be demonstrated at the molecular level but other possible mechanisms of this association are discussed. We conclude that in these cases genetic counselling should be reassuring.
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10/121. prenatal diagnosis of inherited satellited non-acrocentric chromosomes.

    We report on the prenatal diagnosis of two sib female fetuses with a satellited short arm of chromosome 4 and a male fetus with a satellited long arm of chromosome X. The first two fetuses had a cryptic balanced translocation (4;15)(p16;p11.1) inherited from a mother carrying a satellited 4p and having an affected child with the wolf-hirschhorn syndrome. The third fetus had a satellited Xq, with a deletion of subtelomeric region of Xq. The mother was subsequently found to have the same satellited Xq but without the presence of a reciprocal translocation. She decided to continue the pregnancy. The proband with a satellited Xq manifested developmental delay, mental retardation, hypertelorism, ptosis of one eye, low-set ears, and hearing disturbance at age 6 months. fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) with a specific telomeric or subtelomeric probe, and genetic marker analyses were used to confirm the diagnosis. pregnant women with satellited non-acrocentric chromosomes are at risk for carrying fetuses with chromosome abnormalities. If the x chromosome is involved, the fetuses can be affected with X-linked recessive disorders including mental retardation. Detailed genetic counselling, cytogenetic studies, FISH and genetic marker analyses are useful in prenatal detection of abnormal chromosome rearrangements.
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