Cases reported "Trauma, Nervous System"

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1/3. The prevention of nerve injury in aortic arch aneurysmal surgery.

    In a case of aortic arch aneurysm associated with adhesion to the surrounding structures, we devised an operative technique to avoid nerve injury during the surgical procedure. By preserving the adventitial layer of the aortic arch aneurysm to which the phrenic and recurrent nerves were attached, injury to the nerves was avoided, and the aneurysmectomy was completed with the distal anastomosis being performed intraluminally.
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2/3. Traumatic musculocutaneous neuropathy: a case report.

    Isolated injury of the musculocutaneous nerve is a rare disorder. Reported cases are claimed to present with loss of biceps and brachialis power without a disturbing pain. The injury generally occurs after strenuous exercise and could be demonstrated by electrophysiological examination. We report a case of musculocutaneous nerve injury which occurred after a vigorous push and which presented with unusual symptoms and findings. The patient complained of episodic severe pain attacks which started from the axilla and radiated over the musculocutaneous nerve distribution including the lateral antebrachial cutaneous nerve area. He did not respond to 3 months of conservative treatment including multiple corticosteroid injections and finally required surgical release. Surgical epineurotomy resulted in immediate relief. This is the first reported case of acute musculocutaneous nerve injury presenting with unusual symptoms and findings. The operative release procedure performed was also not required in any of the other reported cases. An excellent result was obtained with epineurotomy.
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3/3. Symptomatic cervical disc herniation in a pediatric Klippel-Feil patient: the risk of neural injury associated with extensive congenitally fused vertebrae and a hypermobile segment.

    STUDY DESIGN: A case report. OBJECTIVE: To report the occurrence of a herniated cervical disc following a high-impact activity in a pediatric Klippel-Feil patient who presented with spinal cord compression, myelopathy, and myelomalacia requiring posterior instrumented fusion followed by an anterior discectomy and fusion at the hypermobile nonfused segment. SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA: The primary hallmark of klippel-feil syndrome (KFS) is the presence of at least one congenitally fused cervical segment. Studies have reported the potential risk of cervical injury from hypermobility associated with the nonfused cervical segment in KFS. The manifestation of a cervical disc herniation in the pediatric KFS patient is rare. To the authors' knowledge, the development of a symptomatic cervical herniated disc attributed to mechanical fatigue following a high-impact activity has not been addressed in the literature with respect to the pediatric KFS patient having extensive cervical fusion and a hypermobile segment. methods: A 16.8-year-old KFS boy with occipitalization of C1 and fusion of C2-C3 and C4-T1 presented with myelopathy, severe cord compression, and myelomalacia stemming from a left-sided herniated cervical disc at C3-C4 with onset following an 8-foot high rooftop jump. On radiographic evaluation, the patient's C3-C4 segment was hypermobile. RESULTS: The patient was operatively managed via a same-day combined posterior-anterior procedure. The posterior aspect of the procedure entailed a posterior lateral mass plate-screw fixation at C3-C4 with autologous iliac crest bone fusion. Anteriorly, a discectomy was performed at C3-C4 with application of an interbody tricortical autograft. After surgery, the patient wore a halo vest for 3 months, followed by a soft collar for an additional 3 months. On final follow-up at 39 months, the patient was asymptomatic with no instrumentation-related complications, fusion of the posterior graft-bed and anterior interbody graft was noted, and cervical alignment was maintained. CONCLUSIONS: A hypermobile segment in the pediatric KFS patient is a risk factor that may lead to cord compression. A symptomatic herniated cervical disc may develop from an excessive mechanical load stress in a pediatric KFS patient with multiple fused segments. In such a patient, a same-day combined posterior-anterior procedure provides cord decompression and stabilizes the spine with a favorable outcome.
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