Cases reported "Tremor"

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1/75. Osmotic demyelination syndrome with two-phase movement disorders: case report.

    Osmotic demyelination syndrome (ODS) is characterized by regions of demyelination throughout the brain, which are most prominent in the pons. This demyelinating disease is associated with electrolyte disturbances and typically occurs in patients who are alcoholic or malnourished. movement disorders are not frequently recognized in patients with ODS. This report describes a 22-year-old woman with ODS after correction of profound hyponatremia. The main neurologic symptom was two-phase movement disorder. First, she had acute onset dystonia, then the movement disorder transformed to generalized rigidity and tremors in the delayed second phase. magnetic resonance imaging in the first phase revealed demyelinating lesions in the central pons, bilateral thalami and basal ganglia. In the second phase, the previous myelinolysis had been partially resolved. The clinical course of the two-phase movement disorder did not correlate with the resolving feature of neuroradiologic findings. During the second-phase movement disorder, the patient had a good response to propranolol and trihexyphenidyl.
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ranking = 1
keywords = dystonia
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2/75. neurophysiology of orthostatic tremor. Influence of transcranial magnetic stimulation.

    A 74-year-old patient suffers from painful muscle cramps when he stands since 30 years. He has no visible tremor but 16 Hz burst activity on EMG, indicating orthostatic tremor. Previous diagnosis was hysteria, stiff person syndrome or dystonia. This shows that EMG during standing should be part of the examination of patients with stiff muscles or muscle cramps. Tremor was not strictly orthostatic. It appeared in back muscles while sitting, when the patient supported a weight with outstretched arms. Phase between muscles differed between normal standing and standing on heels. Subthreshold transcranial magnetic stimulation modulated timing of the tremor bursts and inhibited them at higher intensity stimulation.
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ranking = 1
keywords = dystonia
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3/75. Anticonvulsant-induced dyskinesias: a comparison with dyskinesias induced by neuroleptics.

    anticonvulsants cause dyskinesias more commonly than has been appreciated. Diphenylhydantoin (DPH), carbamazepine, primidone, and phenobarbitone may cause asterixis. DPH, but not other anticonvulsants, may cause orofacial dyskinesias, limb chorea, and dystonia in intoxicated patients. These dyskinesias are similar to those caused by neuroleptic drugs and may be related to dopamine antagonistic properties possessed by DPH.
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ranking = 4.7787483806891
keywords = dystonia, dyskinesia
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4/75. levodopa may improve orthostatic tremor: case report and trial of treatment.

    Primary orthostatic tremor is a regular fast lower limb tremor causing unsteadiness on standing. Treatment is generally unsatisfactory. A patient with primary orthostatic tremor who 9 years later developed levodopa responsive idiopathic Parkinson's disease is described. The patient exhibited the classic features of primary orthostatic tremor with relief of the tremor by walking or sitting while treated with levodopa. However, in the "off" state, when the benefits of levodopa disappeared, this orthostatic tremor was continuous and severely compromised the patient's gait. On the basis of this finding eight patients with primary orthostatic tremor were treated with levodopa. Five patients experienced benefit and elected to remain on long term treatment. This study is the first trial of therapy in primary orthostatic tremor and suggests that levodopa can lead to good symptomatic relief in this potentially disabling condition.
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ranking = 0.00079077451683254
keywords = idiopathic
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5/75. Clinical genetics of familial progressive supranuclear palsy.

    Recent studies have shown that progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP) could be inherited, but the pattern of inheritance and the spectrum of the clinical findings in relatives are unknown. We here report 12 pedigrees, confirmed by pathology in four probands, with familial PSP. Pathological diagnosis was confirmed according to recently reported internationally agreed criteria. The spectrum of the clinical phenotypes in these families was variable including 34 typical cases of PSP (12 probands plus 22 secondary cases), three patients with postural tremor, three with dementia, one with parkinsonism, two with tremor, dystonia, gaze palsy and tics, and one with gait disturbance. The presence of affected members in at least two generations in eight of the families and the absence of consanguinity suggests autosomal dominant transmission with incomplete penetrance. We conclude that hereditary PSP is more frequent than previously thought and that the scarcity of familial cases may be related to a lack of recognition of the variable phenotypic expression of the disease.
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ranking = 1
keywords = dystonia
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6/75. Exogenous levodopa is not toxic to elderly subjects with non-parkinsonian movement disorders: further clinical evidence.

    We report three women between 80 and 87 years of age who had longstanding essential tremor. Due to an erroneous diagnosis of Parkinsonism they had received levodopa preparations for 13, 16 and 25 years, respectively, with cumulative levodopa equivalent doses of 18.0, 9.0, and 4.1 kg. The patients showed neither dyskinesias nor signs of Parkinsonism. These observations do not support a detrimental role of chronic levodopa exposure in elderly individuals with essential tremor.
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ranking = 0.34352258006265
keywords = dyskinesia
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7/75. Cerebral arteriovenous malformations and movement disorders.

    A series of six patients with movement disorders associated with cerebral arteriovenous malformations (AVM) is reported. The AVMs were classified according to the Spetzler-Martin classification as grade V (one patient), grade IV (four patients), and as grade III (one patient). One patient had action-induced hemidystonia caused by a contralateral frontoparietal AVM which compressed the putamen and was supplied partially by enlarged lenticulostriate arteries. Two patients presented with unilateral cortical tremor associated with contralateral high-frontal cortical/subcortical AVMs sparing the basal ganglia. Another patient developed hemidystonia and hemichorea-hemiballism after bleeding of a contralateral temporooccipital AVM and subsequent ischemia. Two patients had focal dystonia after thalamic and basal ganglia hemorrhage from AVMs. Five patients were operated on. The movement disorder was abolished in one patient postoperatively. Different mechanisms were identified that are relevant for the development of AVM-related movement disorders: mass effect, diaschisis, local parenchymal altered cerebral blood flow, and hemorrhagic or ischemic structural lesions.
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ranking = 3
keywords = dystonia
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8/75. Childhood head tremor.

    We report here four children (three girls, one boy) with head tremor followed longitudinally, ages 15 months to 11 years, with follow-up over 1 to 8 years. Each demonstrated onset of head tremor between the ages of 5 and 10 months. In each case head tremor was characterized by a predominant "yes-yes" or "no-no" movement of the head. In two of the children the movement was slightly skewed with chin movement toward the shoulder. Oscillations were at a frequency of about 1 to 2 Hz. They were accentuated when sitting upright without head support, increased at times of movement, and dissipated while lying flat or sleeping. The children were unable to voluntarily suppress the action and did not experience any sensation of movement. Three of the children had shuddering spells prior to onset of head tremor. Two children have developed mild dystonic posturing of the legs when intently concentrating. Their general and neurologic examinations were normal. Normal investigations included brain magnetic resonance imaging and computed tomography, urine amino acids and organic acids screening, serum lactate, erythrocyte sedimentation rate, antinuclear antibodies, and ceruloplasmin and copper levels. A family history of tremor was present in two children, maternal epilepsy in one child, and infantile shuddering occurred in the father of one child. Therapy included trials of selective and nonselective beta-adrenergic blockers, alpha-adrenergic agonists, anticholinergics, anticonvulsants, and amantadine. One child responded well to both timolol and trihexyphenidyl. A second child responded moderately to primidone. Two have not been treated. Two have had head tremor spontaneously remit. We conclude from this small series of children with head tremor that it can evolve from a prior history of shuddering spells, occurs in the context of a positive family history of tremor, and can be accompanied by the development of a mild dystonia. Therapeutic response is variable to multiple agents. Spontaneous remission occurs, suggesting a benign course.
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ranking = 1
keywords = dystonia
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9/75. deep brain stimulation of subthalamic area for severe proximal tremor.

    Proximal tremors are often refractory to nucleus ventrointermedius thalami thalamotomy. Subthalamotomy has been suggested to be effective for treatment of tremor, although this procedure is associated with considerable adverse effects, and has rarely been considered a suitable treatment modality. The authors demonstrate the efficacy and safety of subthalamic deep brain stimulation in two patients, one with a severe, refractory proximal essential tremor and one with tremor with dystonia.
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ranking = 1
keywords = dystonia
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10/75. A Yorkshire family with adult-onset cranio-cervical primary torsion dystonia.

    Although a family history is described in approximately 20% of patients, large families with adult-onset craniocervical primary (idiopathic) torsion dystonia (PTD) are rare. We report a new British family with cranio-cervical dystonia. Seventeen members of the family were examined. Five cases were diagnosed as definite PTD and one as probable PTD. Mean age at onset was 29 years (range, 19-40 yrs). The phenotype was characterized by adult-onset cranio-cervical dystonia in all affected cases. A few cases had additional voice tremor and/or postural arm tremor. The GAG deletion in the DYT1 gene was excluded in the index case. Linkage analysis was performed between the disease and several marker loci spanning DYT6 and DYT7 regions, and haplotypes were reconstructed in all subjects. Although linkage analysis was not completely informative, reconstructed haplotypes excluded linkage between the disease and either DYT6 or DYT7. This report confirms that familial cranio-cervical dystonia is genetically heterogeneous, and further studies of other PTD families with similar clinical features are needed to identify other new genes.
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ranking = 8.0007907745168
keywords = dystonia, idiopathic
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