Cases reported "Tremor"

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1/75. Tremor induced by toluene misuse successfully treated by a Vim thalamotomy.

    A 22 year old man developed a vigorous tremor of 5 Hz in his right hand, after a 7 year history of toluene misuse. T2 Weighted MRI depicted marked decreases in the signal intensity of the basal ganglia, red nucleus, and thalamus on both sides. The stereotactic coagulation of the left nucleus ventrointermedius (Vim) of the thalamus abolished the tremors in his right hand. This patient clearly exhibited the pathological involvement of rubral lesions in generation of a toluene induced tremor on MRI. toluene induced tremor is an irreversible symptom which persists even after stopping toluene misuse, therefore in medically intractable cases, it should be positively treated by a Vim thalamotomy.
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keywords = nucleus
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2/75. Palatal tremor, progressive multiple cranial nerve palsies, and cerebellar ataxia: a case report and review of literature of palatal tremors in neurodegenerative disease.

    We describe a patient with an unusual clinical presentation of progressive multiple cranial nerve palsies, cerebellar ataxia, and palatal tremor (PT) resulting from an unknown etiology. magnetic resonance imaging showed evidence of hypertrophy of the inferior olivary nuclei, brain stem atrophy, and marked cerebellar atrophy. This combination of progressive multiple cranial nerve palsies, cerebellar ataxia, and PT has never been reported in the literature. We have also reviewed the literature of PT secondary to neurodegenerative causes. In a total of 23 patients, the common causes are sporadic olivopontocerebellar atrophy (OPCA; 22%), Alexander's disease (22%), unknown etiology (43.4%), and occasionally progressive supranuclear palsy (4.3%) and spinocerebellar degeneration (4.3%). Most patients present with progressive cerebellar ataxia and approximately two thirds of them have rhythmic tremors elsewhere. ear clicks are observed in 13% and evidence of hypertrophy of the inferior olivary nucleus in 25% of the patients. The common neurodegenerative causes of PT are OPCA/multiple system atrophy, Alexander's disease, and, in most of them, the result of an unknown cause.
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keywords = nucleus
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3/75. Natural course of combined limb and palatal tremor caused by cerebellar-brain stem infarction.

    After infarction of the left superior cerebellar peduncle and dentate nucleus, a patient developed tremor of the left upper limb beginning on the twelfth day followed by palatal tremor appearing 10 months after infarction. Surface electromyogram revealed a difference in the frequency of the tremor in the upper limb and soft palate. When the palatal tremor appeared, brain magnetic resonance T2-weighted images revealed high signal intensity of the contralateral, right inferior olivary nucleus. Subsequently, when the amplitude of palatal tremor became less severe, the high olivary signal intensity subsided whereas the hypertrophy of the nucleus remained. This patient provides useful information on the pathogenesis of skeletal and palatal tremor with brain stem or cerebellar lesions based on the differences in the onset and frequency of tremors and morphologic changes in the inferior olive.
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ranking = 1.5
keywords = nucleus
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4/75. Posteroventral pallidotomy for midbrain tremor after a pontine hemorrhage. Case report.

    This 49-year-old man gradually developed a disabling action tremor in the proximal right upper extremity 8 months after suffering a pontine tegmental hemorrhage. The intraoperative microrecording in the nucleus ventralis intermedius (VIM) of the left thalamus revealed tremor-synchronous grouped discharges with a vigorous (2.7 Hz) action tremor predominantly in the shoulder and upper arm. High frequency electrical stimulation in the VIM did not affect the tremor. A posteroventral pallidotomy (PVP) was performed and resulted in the successful alleviation of all tremor activity. Posteroventral pallidotomy is known to alleviate parkinsonian tremors, especially those occurring in the contralateral lower extremity, trunk, and proximal segment of the contralateral upper extremity. The authors consider the pallidoreticular pathway to be an important tremor-mediating pathway for the proximal segment of the upper extremities and believe it can be controlled more effectively by PVP than by VIM thalamotomy, as demonstrated by the PVP-induced resolution of the midbrain tremor observed in this case.
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ranking = 0.50005370347734
keywords = nucleus, group
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5/75. An unusual concomitant tremor and myoclonus after a contralateral infarct at thalamus and subthalamic nucleus.

    A 72-year-old woman experienced a sudden onset of spontaneous tremor and myoclonus of right extremities that completely subsided 24 hours after onset. neuroimaging study revealed an infarct at the left ventral portion of thalamus and subthalamic nucleus. Concomitant dyskinetic movement disorders after stroke are extremely rare and the mechanism is herein discussed.
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ranking = 553.10907812103
keywords = thalamic nucleus, nucleus
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6/75. Precise localization of dysfunctional areas in vertebro-basilar infarction by FDG- and O-15-H2O-PET using standardized image analysis and image registration to 3-D MR.

    The advantages of standardized multimodal image analysis are demonstrated in a case of symptomatic tremor after basilar thrombosis. Functionally and structurally lesioned areas were mapped in Talairach space using 3-D MRI, cerebral FDG-PET and O-15-H2O-PET. Structural lesions were found in the left midbrain, thalamus, putamen and cerebellar areas. Voxel-based statistics in comparison to a normal data base revealed hypometabolism in the left thalamus, left red nucleus, left cerebellar hemisphere including dentate nucleus and in the left inferior olivary nucleus. The O-15-H2O-PET investigation revealed metabolic uncoupling along the rubroolivocerebellar loop. Given the delicate anatomy of the structures involved, image registration and standardized image analysis techniques are essential for a synoptic multimodality analysis of morphological and functional pathology and should generally be used for cerebral PET investigations.
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ranking = 1.5
keywords = nucleus
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7/75. deep brain stimulation of subthalamic area for severe proximal tremor.

    Proximal tremors are often refractory to nucleus ventrointermedius thalami thalamotomy. Subthalamotomy has been suggested to be effective for treatment of tremor, although this procedure is associated with considerable adverse effects, and has rarely been considered a suitable treatment modality. The authors demonstrate the efficacy and safety of subthalamic deep brain stimulation in two patients, one with a severe, refractory proximal essential tremor and one with tremor with dystonia.
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ranking = 0.5
keywords = nucleus
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8/75. Psychiatric symptoms as late onset of Wilson's disease: neuroradiological findings, clinical features and treatment.

    We describe a case of Wilson's disease with late psychiatric onset. Major depressive disorder was the first clinical manifestation at the age of 38 years. After pharmacotherapy with antidepressive agents, a manic episode was observed. Extrapyramidal hand tremor and micrography were the first neurological signs. Emotional lability occurred during worsening of extrapyramidal signs. diagnosis was based on urinary and serum copper levels, ceruloplasmin serum level, Kayser-Fleischer ring, and liver biopsy that detected cirrhosis. magnetic resonance imaging revealed basal ganglia hyperintensity on T1-weighted images, and hypodensity in the central part and hyperintensity in the peripheral part of the lentiform nucleus on T2-weighted images. Hyperintensity on T2-weighted images was also observed in the dorsal part of the midbrain. 123I-iodobenzamide single photon emission computed tomography (IBZM-SPECT) detected a normal distribution of the drug in the brain, with better signal in the right side and deficit of D2-dopaminergic receptors in the basal ganglia. Abnormal manganese erythrocyte level was observed. Treatment was based on penicillamine, zinc salts, low-copper diet, antidepressant agents, interpersonal psychotherapy and neurorehabilitation.
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ranking = 0.5
keywords = nucleus
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9/75. Thalamic tremor: correlations with three-dimensional magnetic resonance imaging data and pathophysiological mechanisms.

    Tremor associated with a single focal thalamic lesion has rarely been reported. Furthermore, the exact localization of the lesions is difficult to determine because of the imprecision of "conventional" radiology (computed tomography scan and/or "standard" magnetic resonance imaging). The aim of this study was to identify which thalamic structures are involved in tremor associated with a single focal thalamic lesion. We selected two patients who presented with unilateral postural and kinetic tremor of the upper limb related to a localized thalamic infarction. Three-dimensional T1-weighted magnetic resonance imaging sequence (MP-rage sequence) was used to determine the precise topography of the lesions by stereotactic analysis using the atlas of Hassler. The lesions were located within the pulvinar, the sensory nuclei, the mediodorsal nucleus, and the ventral lateral posterior nucleus (according to the classification of Hirai and Jones), the latter including the ventral intermediate nucleus (Vim according to the classification of Hassler). However, the Vim was spared. The subthalamic area, which can induce tremor, was not involved. After having compared the topography of the lesions with the clinical findings, we suggest that thalamic tremors may result from the interruption of the cerebellar outflow tract to the Vim within the thalamus.
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ranking = 1.5
keywords = nucleus
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10/75. Irregular jerky tremor, myoclonus, and thalamus: a study using low-frequency stimulation.

    High-frequency thalamic stimulation alleviates tremor in Parkinson's disease (PD) and essential tremor (ET). The origin of thalamic myoclonus is unexplained and the effects of low-frequency thalamic stimulation on movement control are still unknown. We studied the effects of stimulation at a low frequency of 15 Hz in five drug-free patients (3 PD, 2 ET) 6 months after thalamic implantation of quadripolar electrodes (unilateral in four patients, bilateral in one patient). Clinical, electrophysiological, and videotaped assessment, using a monopolar 15 Hz frequency (3 V, 90 micros) stimulation current applied simultaneously through two adjacent contacts of the electrode, was performed. We observed myoclonus and irregular jerky tremor in the upper limb contralateral to the site of stimulation. The jerks lasted less than 200 ms, were irregular and not synchronous with stimulation, were superimposed on rest or postural tremor, and increased in response to tactile, proprioceptive, or vibratory stimuli. The fact that this complex movement disorder can be induced by low-frequency stimulation in the ventral intermediate nucleus (Vim) of the thalamus suggests that it results, at least partly, from dysfunction of the Vim and possibly adjacent nuclei of the thalamus.
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ranking = 0.5
keywords = nucleus
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